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A&P II Exam 1

Erythrocyte Are removed from the circulation after about 120 days by macrophages in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow
Platelet function in the clotting mechanism by forming a temporary plug that helps seal breaks in blood vessels
Monocyte They leave the circulation, enter tissue, and differentiate into macrophages
Lymphocyte T cells function in the immune response. B cells give rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies
Eosinophil Lead the body’s counterattack against parasitic worms. Lessen the severity of allergies by phagocytizing immune complexes
Neutrophil Take up both acidic and basic dyes. Give the cytoplasm a lilac color. Contain peroxidases, hydrolytic enzymes, and defensins (antibiotic-like proteins)
Basophil Are functionally similar to mast cells
3. List the major categories of plasma protein and state their function Albumin: the most abundant plasma protein; contributes to the regulation of osmotic presure Globulins: transport proteins that bind to lipids, metal ions, and fat soluble vitamins clotting proteins:
Embolus traveling clot in the bloodstream (Dangerous if it encounters narrow vessels)
anemia Any condition in which the body has an abnormal oxygen carrying capacity
hemostasis A series of reactions designed for stoppage of bleeding
clotting blood transformed from a liquid to a gel
agglutination clumping of (foreign) cells
spectrin a large cytoskeletal protein that is found on the inner cell membrane of red blood cells and that functions especially in maintaining cell shape
thrombus a clot that develops in an unbroken vessel (Can block circulation and kill viable tissues)
5. Describe the components of whole blood and their relative proportions. · It is composed of liquid plasma and formed element· Formed elements include: F Erythrocytes, or red blood cells; erythrocytes are more than 97% hemoglobin F Leukocytes, or white blood cells; Are less numerous than RBCs; Make 1% of the total blood v
6. List the materials release from platelets. Their granules contain serotonin, Ca2+, enzymes, ADP, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
7. Describe erythropoiesis. Explain how it is controlled. the production of erythrocytes. Erythropoiesis is hormonally controlled and depends on adequate supplies of iron, amino acids, and B vitamins
8. What is heparin? a polysaccharide produced in basophils (especially in the lung and liver) and that inhibits the activity of thrombin in coagulation of the blood
9. What is the pivotal molecule associated with the external surfaces of aggregated platelets and involved in the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of blood clotting? PF3
10. What is the average normal pH of blood? 7.4
11. Which blood type is called the universal donor. O
12. Describe the fate of aging red blood cells. membranes "wear out" and the cells become damaged.
13. Describe the blood transfusion limitations for a person who is AB— can receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen.
14. The most abundant plasma protein is _ albumin
16. What are blood volume expanders? List examples 1dextran. 2saline solutions. 3albumin.
17. What is the normal hemoglobin content of blood? · Normal vlaalues for hemoglobin are 14-20(g/100ml) in infants · 13-18(g/ml) in adult males · 12-16 (g/100ml) in adult females
18. Describe the symptoms of polycythemia. 1 increased blood volume. 2 high hematocrit. 3 high blood pressure.
19. Describe the phases of hemostasis 1 platelet plug formation 2vascular spasm 3 coagulation
20. Place the cell stages involved in erythropoisis in their correct developmental sequence. 1proerythroblast 2 late erythroblast 3 normoblast 4 reticulocyte
21. Describe the cause and symptoms of pernicious anemia. A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes
22. What is the slowest step in the clotting process? formation of prothrombin activator.
23. What are thromboembolytic disorders? include embolus formation, a clot moving within the circulatory system.
24. List the causes of bleeding disorders 1 thrombocytopenia, a condition of decreased circulating platelets 2vitamin K deficiency 3a defect in the clotting cascade
26. Describe the general sequence of events in blood clotting 1 formation of thromboplastin 2 prothrombin --> thrombin 3. fibrinogen --> fibrin 4 clot retraction
27. Describe the leukocytes that come from myeloid stem cells. Which ones derive from myelocytes? Lymphoid stem cells produce lymphocytes from the myeloid stem cell, eosinophils, neutrophils, and basophils are derived from myelocytes
28. What circumstances may cause sickling of red blood cells in individuals with sickle-cell anemia. travel at high altitude and vigorous exercise.
29. What conditions may impair coagulation? 1 severe hypocalcemia. 2 vitamin K deficiency. 3 liver disease.
30. What are the complications of aplastic anemia? 1 bleeding disorders. 2 impaired formation of all formed elements. 3 suppressed immunity.
31. Erythroblastosis will not happen in the child of an Rh negative mother under what conditions? if the father is Rh-
32. The formed element ________ can kill parasitic worms. eosinophyll
33. A ________ is a committed granular leukocyte stem cell. Proerythroblast
34. The rarest leukocyte is the ________. basophil
35. The potent platelet aggregate that attracts more platelets to the site of an injury is ________. ADP
36. ________ is an antiprostaglandin drug that inhibits thromboxane A2 formation (platelet plug formation). Aspirin
37. The universal recipient blood type is ________. AB
38. When monocytes migrate into the interstitial spaces, they are called ________. macrophages
39. Destruction of the hematopoietic components of red marrow leads to a condition called ________. Anemia
40. ________ is the stage of development in the life of an erythrocyte during which the nucleus is ejected. Normoblast
41. Hemoglobin is composed of ________ polypeptide chains. 4
42. List the general factors that limit normal clot growth swift removal of clotting factors
43. When are whole blood transfusions routinely given open Heart surgery and new born baby
44. List the most common causes of bleeding disorders 1 thrombocytopenia, a condition of decreased circulating platelets 2vitamin K deficiency 3a defect in the clotting cascade
45. List examples for each of the three functions of blood: distribution, regulation and protection. protection: prevention of blood loss; regulation: maintenance of normal pH in body tissues; distribution:delivering oxygen from lungs, nutrients, transport hormomes and metabolic waste
46. What are the granulocytes and what are their lifespans spherical, lobed nuclei, phagocytes, few hours-5 days
47. Why is iron not stored or transported in its free form? In what form(s) is it stored iron can be toxic; protein-iron complexes
48. Explain why blood is classified as a connective tissue fibrous proteins form during clotting
49. What determines whether blood is bright red or a dull, dark red amount of oxygen
50. Why is hemoglobin enclosed in erythrocytes rather than existing free in plasma? binds to oxygen
51. What is the buffy coat found in centrifuged whole blood leukocytes & platelets
52. Where and how is iron stored in the body? 65% in Hemoglobin, stored in cells as a protein iron complexes
53. Name the granulocytes and what percent they are found in whole blood Neutrophil 50-70%, Eosinophil 2-4%, Basophil .5-1%
54. Why would there be cause for concern if a young pregnant mother is Rh--, her husband is Rh+ and this is their second child? erythroblastsosis fetrlis, antibodies will kill baby RBCs
55. A total WBC count and a differential WBC count have been ordered for Mrs. Johnson. What information is obtained from the differential count that the total count does not provide? amount of individual WBCs to determine status of hemostasis
56. List three blood tests that might be ordered is anemia is suspected. differential WBC count, platelet count, CBC
59. Describe the body’s first, second and third lines of defense. 1 First line of defense – intact skin and mucosae prevent entry of microorganisms 2 Second line of defense – antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes, and other cells Third line of defense – mounts attack against particular foreign substances
60. Describe the function of the following immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM IgA:limited in plasma; IgD: always attached to ext surface of a Bcell; IgE:secreted by plasma c cells; IgG: 75-85% of circ antibodies; IgM: exists in monomer and penatmeter forms
63. How does one acquire passive immunity? naturly acquired from mother to fetus via placenta
64. List and describe the types of T cells CD4 cells (T4 Cells), CD8 Cells (T8 cells), Supressor T cells, Memory T cells
65. Describe the functions of the inflammatory response clean area and prepare for healing
66. The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by _________ a flood of inflammatory chemicals released into the extracellular fluid
67. The antibody molecule is held together by what kind of bonds? disulfide
68. In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned. Antigen
69. The system that recognizes foreign molecules and act to immobilize, neutralize, or destroy them is the ___ active immune system
70. The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called phagocytosis
71. Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ________ complement fixation
72. The cheap antibodies mediated mechanism used against cellular antigens, such as bacteria is lymphocytes
73. The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the _____________ cytotoxic cells
74. Which WBC predominates at the site of chronic infections? lymphocytes
75. Describe the role of interferons. stimulates the high boring cells to activate genes genes for PKR which is an anti-viral protein
77. Describe the role of suppressor T cells dampen the immune response, suppress self reactive lymphocytes in the periphery
80. Describe the components of the second line of defense against microorganisms. fever, natural killer cells, phagocytes
81. What is a complete antigen? many large polysaccharides, some lipids, nucleic acids
83. Graft rejection may be caused by ____________ not genetically identical grafts
84. Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of the immune system by _______ natural killer cells
85. Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and roughen its surface, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This is called _____________ opsonization
87. Give examples of the use of monoclonal antibodies. diagnose pregnancies, STDs, cancer, hepatitis, and rabies
90. Describe the cause and benefits of fever. response to microorganisms; make nutrient less available & increase metabolism
92. Describe the role of natural killer cells kill cancer cells & virus infected body cells
94. What is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection? WhyDescribe the time course of the primary immune response?
95. Give some examples of autoimmune diseases Lupis, AIDS
96. How do autoimmune disorders develop? 1 exposure of previously "hidden" self-antigens to the adaptive immune system 2 cross-reaction of antibodies formed against foreign antigens with self-antigens 3 mutation followed by the appearance of membrane proteins not previously presen
97. Describe the functions of antibody. neutralization
99. What factors control the proliferation of T cells? Helper T Cells
101. Which interleukin inhibits the immune response? 10
102. ________ are grafts taken from another animal species. Xenografts
103. Pure antibody preparations specific for a single antigenic determinant are called ________ antibodies. monoclonal
104. ________ is the most common type of immediate hypersensitivity. the adaptive immune system type 1 IgE
105. ________ cells can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells before the immune system is activated. natural killer cells
106. Harmful or disease-causing microorganisms are called ________. pathogens
107. ________ refers to a group of at least 20 plasma proteins that normally circulate in an inactive state and are a major mechanism for destroying foreign substances in the body. compliment proteins
108. ________ becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and causes the cells to release histamine and other chemicals. IgE
109. A ________ is a cell hybrid formed from the fusion of tumor cells and B lymphocytes. IgE
110. ________ cells are the only T lymphocytes that can directly attack and kill other cells. cytotoxic cells
111. ________ is an autoimmune disease that severely impairs renal function. glomerulo nephrrtrs
112. List and briefly discuss innate body defenses to disease fever, phagocytes, Natural killer cells, inflammation fusin tumor cells, lymphocytes
113. What are monoclonal antibodies? How are they produced, and what are some of their clinical uses? pure antibody preparations specific for a single antigenic determinant
114. What is the antigen challenge, and where does it usually take place? 1st encounter of an immunocompetent & an invadining antigen spken lymph node
115. Why are suppressor T cells important to the immune process? prevent autoimmune responses
116. What are the signs of inflammation and how does inflammation serve as a protective function? heat, redness, pain, swelling; prevents spread, repair, disposes of debris
117. Tom gets a cut on his hand. After several days he notes swelling, pain, heat, and redness. Upon opening the wound to relieve the pressure, the presence of pus is noted. What has happened to the wound? it has become infected
118. What are some of the drawbacks of passive humoral immunity? not made by your plasma cells & are harvested from the serum of an immune human or animal donor
immunocompetence each lymphocyte must be able to recognize its one specific antigen by binding to it
delayed hypersensitivity slower to appear (1-3 days), cell-mediated immune response which depends on Th cells & Tc cells
innate immune system defenses 1st and 2nd line of defense, mechanical barriera that cover body surfaces & the cells & chemicals that act on the initial internal battle fronts
immediate hypersensitivites allergies, begin w/in seconds after contact w/ the allergen & last about half an hour
Created by: Brison