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MC CHEM 101 Ch 1

Montgomery College CHEM 101 Chapter 1

Chemistry The study of matter and the changes it undergoes
Methods of Science Hypothesis Law Theory
Hypothesis A tentative explanation or prediction of experimental observations
Law A concise verbal or mathematical statement of a relation that is always the same under the same conditions. Laws summarize the facts of nature and rarely change.
Theory A unifying principle that explains laws. Explain how or why things happen. Are inventions of the human mind and do change as new facts are discovered. Can never be proven to be absolutely correct
Qualitative Nonnumerical observations, physical appearances. Also, whether or not something is there.
Quantitative Numerical data. How much of something is there, melting point....
Matter Anything that has mass and occupies space
3 State of Matter Solid Liquid Gas
Solid Fixed shape Fixed volume
Liquid No fixed shape Fixed volume
Gas No fixed shape No fixed volume
Properties of Matter Physical / Chemical Extensive / Intensive
Physical Properties Properties that can be measured and observed without changing the substance's chemical composition example: color, density, melting point, boiling point
Chemical Properties How a substance reacts with other substances or undergoes chemical change, such as conversion to another species.
Extensive Properties They depend on the amount of matter present example: mass, volume
Intensive Properties Independent of the amount of sample present example: melting, temperature, color, density
Changes of Matter Physical Chemical
Physical Changes A substance changes its physical appearance without changing its composition
Chemical Changes A substance is changed into a different substance
Classification of Matter Substance: Pure or Compound Mixture: Heterogeneous or Homogeneous
Substance A pure form of mater that ha a definite composition, this means with the same atoms and in the same ratio. Examples: salt, sugar, water.... Pure: only one element Compound: two or more elements
Mixture A combination of several substances that have a variable composition and can be separated into several substances by physical means Properties of each substance don't change during the separation Exp: milk fat in milk, pigment in paint, minerals in plants
Two types of Mixtures Heterogeneous Homogeneous
Heterogeneous Each component of the mixture remains separate Exp. concrete, chocolate chip ice cream
Homogeneous Same composition throughout the whole mixture (solution) Exp. Soda, Milk
Separation of Matter Physical Chemical
Physical Separation Each substance in a mixture retains its properties after the separation the separated substances still have the same atom ratio physical changes usually are reversible Exp. boiling alcohol of beer
Chemical Separation Separation by changing the substance into a new substances. They will have a new atom ratio and new properties Chemical changes usually are not reversible
Atom The smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element
Molecules Two or more atoms combined in definite ratios
Elements The simplest substance that is made up of only one type of atom Also, a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
Diatomic elements H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, I2, Br2 HONClBrIF 7 ALSO: P4 and S8
Periodic Table Is a systematic way of organizing known elements based on their properties (into rows and columns
Rows Periods
Columns Groups or families
Group 1A Alkali metals
Group 2A Alkaline earth metals
Group 7A Halogens
Group 8A Noble gases (inert gases)
Periodic table may be divided in to group types Main groups Transition-metal groups Inner transitional-metal groups and by metallic properties Metals, nonmetals and semimetals (metalloids)
Compounds A combination of two or more elements that are united chemically in definite proportions (CO2, H2O). They always have the same composition They can be broken down into other substances by chemical means to make new substances
When the substances making up the compound are the same then it is an element
When the substances making up the compound are different then it is a compound
Law of Constant Composition (Proust) Also Known As: Law of Definite Proportions All samples of a given compound (same compound), regardless of their source or how they were prepared, have the same proportions of their constituent elements.
SI for Mass kg Kilogram
SI for Length m Meter
SI for Time s Second
SI for Temperature K Kelvin
SI for Amount of Substance mol Mole
SI for Volume L Liter
Giga G 10^9 1 000 000 000
Mega M 10^6 1 000 000
Kilo k 10^3 1000
Deci d 10^-1 0.1
Centi c 10^-2 0.01
Milli m 10^-3 0.001
Micro u (mu) 10^-6 0.000 001
Nano n 10^-9 0.000 000 001
Pico p 10^-12 0.000 000 000 001
Area A=(SI Unit)^2 exp. m^2, cm^2, DM^2.....
Volume V=(SI Unit)^3 exp. m^3, cm^3, DM^3 (=1L)
What is the volume of a box in cm^3 if all sides measure 1 inch? What is the volume in dm^3
Difference between Mass and Weight Mass is a measure of how much matter an object has. Weight is a measure of how strongly gravity pulls on that matter
Mass Reflects how much matter is there (kg)
Weight Reflects both mass and the force exerted on the mass (lb)
Density Density=mass/volume
Density of water 1.00 g/cm^3
Suppose a box mentioned above has a mass of 55.7 g. what is the density of the box?
Temperature Kelvin Celsius Fahrenheit
Kelvin Kelvin = degrees Celsius + 273 Absolute Zero= 0 Freezes Water= 273.15 Boils Water= 373.15
Celsius °C = (°F − 32) × 5/9 Absolute Zero= -273.15 Freezes Water= 0 Boils Water= 100
Fahrenheit °F = (°C × 9/5 )+ 32 Absolute Zero= -460 Freezes Water= 32 Boils Water= 212
Scientific Notation One digit before the decimal point, multiplied by power of tens y.yyyyy x 10^z
Significant figures Count all digits from left to right starting with the first non zero digit All zeros to the left of the first nonzero are not significant Zeros between nonzeros are significant 0 to the right of the last nonzero digit are only significant if decimal point
Significant figures when adding or subtracting look to see with variable has the greatest place (hundredths, tenths, ones, tens....) as its last significant number. This with be the place reported in your answer. Before as well as after the decimal point
Significant figures when multiplying or dividing the number of significant figures is the same as the number with the fewest significant figures
Dimensional analysis involves conversion factors in a systematic way to solve problems
When you heat popcorn, it pops because it loses water explosively. Assume a kernel of corn, weighing 0.125g, weighs only 0.106 g after popping What is the amount of mass lost in kg? What is the amount of mass lost in mg?
A runner runs 10km race at an average speed of 16.0 mph. What is the average speed in km/hr? What is the average speed in cm/hr? How long in seconds did it take him to finish the race?
Created by: amzago