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Chem Asssessment 1

Diffusion Random movement of particles to fill available space and spread evenly. (Using Brownian motion, gas travels from high concentration to low concentration.)
Factors Affecting Diffusion Molar Mass of Substance: Larger = Slower Temperature: Hot = Fast
Diffusion of Hydrogen Chloride and Ammonia gas through air to form Ammonium Chloride. Two cottons, one soaked in ammonia solution, one soaked in concentrated hydrochloric acid, are placed on opposite ends of a tube sealed by corks. The gases meet closer to the HCl because ammonia molecules travel faster due to lower molar mass.
Subatomic Particles, their mass, and their charges. Proton: +1, 1 Electron: -1, 0 Neutron: 0, 1
Diffusion in Liquids Slower than diffusion in gas, but still possible because particles move around slowly.
Brownian Motion Random motion of Particles.
Latin names of: Antimony, Copper, Iron, Lead, Mercury, Potassium, Sodium, Tin, and Tungsten. Stibium, Cuprum, Ferum, Plumbum, Hydragyrum, Kalium, Natrium, Starnum, Wolfram
Atoms Fundamental building blocks of matter. Retains its identity during chemical reactions. Smallest unit of matter.
Elements Simplest pure substance.
Molecules Two or more atoms chemically combined in a fixed proportion.
Compounds Multiple Molecules
Nucleus Contains mass of atom (Protons/Neutrons)
Electron cloud Contains most of the space in the atom + Electron shells.
Isotopes Various atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
Isotopes of Hydrogen Regular Hydrogen (0 neutrons), Deuterium (1 neutron), tritium (2 neutrons)
Radioisotopes Decay randomly, Half-life is known
Half-life How long it takes for half the radioisotopes in a sample to decay.
Carbon dating Uses half-life of Carbon-14
Relative atomic mass A<sub>r</sub> Average mass of atoms. (%*mass number) + (%*mass number) etc.
Ammonium NH4+
Hydride H-
Oxide O-2
Fluoride F-
Sulfide S-2
Chloride Cl-
Nitride N-3
Bromide Br-
Iodide I-
Phosphate PO4-3
Sulphate SO4-2
Nitrate NO3-
Carbonate CO3-2
Hydroxide OH-
Chlorine Isotopes Chlorine-35 (75%) Chlorine-37 (25%)
Carbon Isotopes Carbon-12 (98.9%) Carbon-13 (1%) Carbon-14 (less than 0.01%)
Diatomic Atoms Hydrogen, Iodine, Oxygen, Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Nitrogen
Group I (Alkali Metals) React with water to form alkalis Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr Radioactive element: Francium Solids Soft metals Good conductor of heat and current Low density (float on water) Low MP, BP Form ionic compounds
Alkali Metals + Water Alkali Metal + Water -> Alkali Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen Lithium: Fizz around the floating metal Sodium: Shoots on the surface of the water Potassium: Melts and bursts into flame Rubidium: Sparks Cesium: Violent explosion
Alkali Metals + Halogens Alkali Metal + Halogen -> Alkali Metal Salt(Halogen) White solid Dissolves completely in water (colorless solution)
Alkali Metals + Oxygen Alkali Metal + Oxygen -> Alkali Metal Oxide + Colored Flame
Down the group (alkali metals): Softness increases Density increases MP/BP decrease Reactivity increases (valence electrons get farther from the nucleus and are easier to lose)
Flame color of Alkali metals Lithium: Red-orange Sodium: Golden yellow Potassium: Lilac
Alkaline Earth Metals + down the group Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba Softness increases MP, BP decreases Reactivity increases
Alkaline Earth Metals vs Alkali Metals Group II are less reactive (2 valence electrons vs 1) Group I are softer Group II MP/BP are higher Group II higher density
Created by: koala25
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