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CHM231- Day 1 Vocab

QuestionAnswer
Principal energy levels (aka shells) region of space around a nucleus where electrons are found
Orbital A region of space where an electron or pair of electrons spends 90 to 95% of its time
Ground-state electron configuration The electron configuration of lowest energy for an atom, molecule, or ion
Valence electrons Electrons in the valence (outermost) shell of an atom
Valence shell The outermost electron shell of an atom in which valence electrons are found
Lewis structure of an atom The symbol of an element surrounded by a number of dots equal to the number of electrons in the valence shell of an atom
Octet rule The tendency among atoms in Group 1A-7A elements to react in ways that achieve an outer shell of eight valence electrons
Anion An atom or group of atoms bearing a negative charge
Cation An atom or group of atoms bearing a positive charge
Ionic bond A chemical bond resulting from the electrostatic attraction of an anion and a cation
Covalent bond A chemical bond resulting from the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons
Electronegativity A measure of the force of an atom’s attraction for electrons it shares in a chemical bond with another atom
Bond length The distance between the nuclei participating in a chemical bond
Nonpolar covalent bond A covalent bond between atoms whose difference in electronegativity is less than approximately 1.5
Polar covalent bond A covalent bond between atoms whose difference in electronegativity is betwee approximately 0.5 and 1.9
Dipole In a [polar covalent bond?] A separation of charge between the more and less electronegative atoms in a molecular bond
Electron density model A way to show electron density, with red (delta minus, δ-) being high and blue (delta plus, δ+) being low electron density
Bonding electrons Valence electrons shared in a covalent bond
Nonbonding electrons Valence electrons not involved in forming covalent bonds; that is, unshared electrons
Single bond When two atoms share one pair of electrons
Double bond When two atoms share two pairs of electrons
Triple bond When two atoms share three pairs of electrons
Formal charge The charge on an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion (equation = valence electrons – (unshared electrons + ½ shared electrons))
Created by: 817229501