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chem. finals

chemistry semester 1 finals

manipulated variable variable that changes
responding variable variable that is observed as the result of an experiment
scientific method observe, hypothesize, predict, experiment
matter anything that has mass and takes up space
chemical change creating a new substance by changing the composition, irreversible
physical change properties of materials change but composition does not
chemical reaction reactants yield product
compound 2 or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions
element purest form of matter, made of 1 substance
reactant substance that undergo a chemical reaction
product result of a chemical reaction
heterogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances that are not uniform
homogeneous 2 or more substances uniformly mixed
law of conservation of mass mass can not be created of destroyed
precipitate solid formed from 2 aqueous reactants in a chemical reaction
vapor gaseous state of substance that is a liquid of solid at room temperature
accuracy how close to the expected value
conversion factor ratio of equivalent measurements
dimensional analysis use of conversion factors to solve problems
percent error % error=|accepted-experimented|/accepted*100
precision how close measurements are to each other
scientific notation a base number times a power of 10
significant figures accurate measurements by the right number of digits
atom smallest part of matter that still holds all properties of an element
atomic mass weighted average of all isotopes of that atom
atomic number number of protons
electrons negatively charges, JJ Thompson
proton positively charged, Goldstein
nucleus protons + neutrons, center of atom
group up and down periodic table
period left and right of periodic table
isotope same number of protons but different number of neutrons
mass number protons + neutrons
neutron no charge, Rutherford
atomic orbital 1s, 3p, 5d, 7f
atomic sublevels s,p,d,f
aufbau's principle electrons enter orbitals in the lowest energy level
electron configuration 1s22s23p6 . . .
energy levels quantum number, n=1, 2, 3, 4 . . .
ground state electron is in the lowest energy level possible
hund's rule electrons enter orbitals with up spin then go back and fill up with down spin
pauli exclusion principle each orbital holds 2 electrons with opposite spins
anion nonmetals, receive electrons, negatively charged ion
cation metals, give away electrons, positively charged ion
periodic law along a period elements have similar properties
atomic radius distance between 2 nuclei of the same element
electronegativity (electron affinity) ability to attract an electron
ionization energy amount of energy it takes to remove an electron
metalloids along the staircase and has both properties of metals and nonmetals
metals left of staircase, good conductor, malleable, strong
transition metals groups 1b to 8b
representative elements groups 1a to 8a, short form
nonmetals right of staircase, not good conductors, mostly gases, brittle
chemical formula use symbols to show element and the number of each in a ionic compound
electron dot structure element symbol surrounded by dots representing valence electrons
formula unit another name for ionic compound
ionic bond transfer of electrons from cation to anion
ionic compound made up of metal cations and nonmetal anions
metallic bond formed by attraction of free flowing valence electrons for positively charged metal ions, "sea of electrons"
octet rule all elements want stable electron configuration like noble gases
valance electrons electrons in the outer most shell
covalent bond bonding of 2 or more nonmetals
diatomic molecule H2, N2. O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, nonmetals that bonds with itself
molecule covalent compound
nonpolar covalent bond where atoms have equal pull (0-.4)
polar covalent bond in which electron are being pulled towards one atom over another (ex. H2O mickey mouse shaped)
pi bond double bond, 2nd bond formed
sigma bond single bond, 1st bond formed
polyatomic ion covalent compound with charge
resonance write 2 or more different lewis structures for the same compound
unshared pair electrons lone electrons not active in bond
VSEPR theory repulsion between lone electrons causes shape to bend
structural formula lewis structure with dots and dashes
acids H+ in front
bases OH- at the end
binary compound 2 elements bonded together either ionic or covalent
monatomic ion single element with charge
law of definite proportions chemical compounds have the same composition despite sample size
law of multiple proportions elements combine in whole number rations not decimals
avagadro's number 6.02*10^23
empirical formula smallest ratio of a molecular formula
molar mass mass of 1 mole on an element or compound
percent composition % composition = (mass of element/mass of compound)*100
representative particles atom, molecule, formula unit
activity series ability of an element to replace another in a single replacement
balanced equation has coefficients
chemical equations uses symbols for reactants and products, separated by ---->
catalyst speeds up chemical reaction but not involved
synthesis/combination A+B--->AB
combustion A+O2--->CO2+H20+heat
decomposition AB--->A+B
single replacement A+BC--->B+AC
double replacement AB+CD--->AD+CB
skeleton equation no coefficients
spectator ion not involved in net ionic equations
actual yield what it actually produces
excess reagent left over after chemical reaction
limiting reagents used up in chemical reaction, determines the amount of product produced
mole ration obtained by coefficients in balance equation
percent yield (actual/theoretical)*100
stoichiometry calculating quantities from info provided in balanced equation
theoretical yield what it should produce, have to figure it out using mole island and not given
measure the level of lead in the blood analytical chemistry
study non carbon based chemicals in rocks inorganic chemistry
investigate changes that occur as food is digested in the stomach biochemistry
study of carbon based chemicals in coal organic chemistry
explain the energy transfer that occurs when ice melts physical chemistry
what is density of water? 1 g/mL = 1 g/cm3
why is an atom positively charged when it loses an electron? more protons than electrons
why is an atom electrically neutral same number of protons and electrons
name 2 ways that isotopes of the same element differ number of neutrons and mass
how many orbitals are in 2p energy level? 3
how many sublevels are in the n=1 principle energy level? n=4 energy level 1(s), 4(s, p, d, f)
what is the max number of electrons that can go into the 3p sublevel? 4f sublevel? 3d sublevel? 6,14,10
what are 2 ways an ion can form from an atom gain of lose electrons
compare the size of cations to its original element cations are always smaller than the original element because it lost electrons
compare the size of anions to its original element anions are alway bigger because it gained electons
why are ionic compounds chemically neutral? charges on ions balance out
what is the different between ionic bond and covalent bond? ionic=transfer electrons covalent=share electrons
what are the molecular shapes? linear, bent, trigonal planar, trigonal pyramid, square planar, tetrahedral
extensive properties properties dependent on sample size (ex. mass, volume)
intensive properties properties that are not dependent on sample size but the type of matter (ex. density, color hardness, melting point, malleability)
democritus 1st to suggest idea of atoms, particles that were indestructable and indivisible, no evidence
chadwick neutron
who used the gold foil experiment? to find what? Rutherford used it to find the nucleus
what were the curies responsible for discovery of radioactivity
Bohr's model electrons orbit around nucleus in a fixed path, did not work for any atom than hydrogen
electrons behave like _________. waves of motion
quantum the amount of energy required to move an electron from one energy level to the next
what happens when electrons get excited electron gains energy and move up energy levels, when they return to ground state they emit light as result of electron transition
bond dissociation energy energy needed to break a bond
van der waal forces (intermolecular forces) dipole interactions, dispersion forces
dipole similar properties of an ionic or polar covalent bond but much weaker, 2 polar molecules are attracted to one another
dispersion forces momentary attraction of electrons due to the random motion of electron in an atom
Created by: sapphiresun