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Science Midterm

Midterm

QuestionAnswer
What is a compound that turns blue litmus paper to red? Acid
What is a compound that turns red litmus paper blue? Base
The number of protons in an atom of an element is called what? Atomic number
A chart that contains man y facts about the elements and their atoms is called what? Periodic Table
What is a dye that changes color when mixed within an acid or base? indicator
What is a compound made of just the two elements hydrogen and carbon? hydrocarbon
What are compounds that contain carbon called? organic compounds
Matter that is made of one kind of atom is called what? element
A substance formed when two or more elements combine chemically is called what? compound
What is an atom that has gained or lost electrons called? Ions
What is an organic compund that consists mainly of a long chain of carbon atoms? Polymer
A change where two or more substances are combined chemically to form a new substance releasing in the form of heat, light, sound, etc,. Chemical Change
A change in size, shape or state of matter Physical change
A fuel that put together from other materials is called a what? Synfuel
Achemical change in which oxygen reacts with other substances oxidation
A chemical change in which a metal combines with elements such as oxygen corrosion
Two or more elemts combined chemically crfeating a new substance releasing energy Compound
A model of the atom developed by Niels Bohr that shows electrons moving in orbits around the nucleus of the atom Bohr Model
The model of the atom that shows electrons forming a cloud as they move around the nucleus of the atom Electron Cloud Model
1,2,3 Strong acid-4,5,6,-weak acid-7,8,9,10- weak base, 11,12,13,14-strong base PH Scale
a subatomic particle with a positive charge Proton
A subatomic particle with a negative Charge Electron
A subatomic particle with no charge Neutron
A gropup of elements found vertically (up and down) on the periodic table having similar characteristics Family
Dull, cannot be shaped easily, not good conductors. (i.e. hydrogen) Non-metals
Shiny, can be shaped easily, good conductors of heat and electricityO (i.e. Zn+Cu- Zinc + Copper) Metals
Don't combne easily with other elements (i.e. He-helium/ Ne- Neon) Noble Gases
Shares properties both metals and nonmetals(i.e. Si-Silicon) Semi-metals
Atoms= parts electrons(-), Protons (+), Neutrons(0)
Anything that takes up space and has mass is called what? Matter
Planetary Model Electrons move around nucleus like the planets revolve around the sun
What is a model? a mental picture or figure.
The nujmber of prtons = what? The number of electrons.
How many number of known elements? 109+
How are elements grouped? In a family
4 groups of elements? Metalsnon-metalssemi-metalsNoble gases
What are metals? shiny, can be shaped easily and good conductorsof heat and electricity.
What are nonmetals? dull, cannot be shaped easily,not good conductors, i.e. Hydrogen
Semi metals shares properties of both metals and non metals, i.e. silicon
Noble gases don't combine easily with other elements, i.e. helium, Neon
Waht is an energy level? the number of electrons in each level of an atom.
Hydrogen and oxygen share a what? electron
Chemical formula s group of symbols that represent the elements in a compound.
Chemical Symbol Letter or letters that stand for the name of the element
H2O- what does the small number represent? it represents the number of atoms in the element it follows.
What is an organism? any living thing.
Examples of a polymer? Fabrics, plastics, and rubber.
Eac part of a polymer is called a what? monomer
Uses of polymers? Toys, tires, clothes
H2O Water
CO2 carbon dioxide
NaCl Sodium chloride
CO Carbon Monoxide
NH3 Ammonia
SO2 Sulfur Dioxide
Mono one - CO1 Carabon Monoxide
Di Two-CO2 Carbon Dioxide
Tri Three- CO3 Carbon Trioxide
Tetra Four- CO4 Carbone Tetraoxide
Two types of acids strong and weak
salts Fromed when acid combines with a base
Neutralization a chemical change that opccurs when an acid is mixed with a base and it results in a salt and water being formed.
phases of matter- solid matter that has definite shape and definite volume. Molecules tightly packed with little room for movement
Liquid matter that has no definite shape or no defintie volumes. Molecules are spread out space in between for more movement
Gas matter that has no definite shape or no definite volume. molecules are spread out for a lot of movement
Plasma the most common state of matter. it is found in stars and bacause of extreme temperatures.
Two types of chemical reactions Composition- coming together- Elements combine to form a compoundCompound braks down into an element
Law of conservation of mass matter is neither created nor destroyed through chemical reaction- i.e. flash bulb has same mass before and at its use.
Mass a measurement of the amount of matter in an object.
Oxidation a chemical reaction or change in which oxygen reacts with a substance
Two kinds of oxidation Rapid and slow
Corrosion sloq oxidation- a c hemical reaction which metal reacts with a substance
rapid oxidation a form of oxidation that happens quickly,i.e. burning- rapid oxidation can be dangerous- i.e. explosion
synfuel synthetic fuel made by artificial materials, i.e. methane (CH4) gasohol
Nuclear Reaction a reaction where the nuclei or nucleus of an atom is changed
Radioactive elements Elements whose nuclei naturally breakdown. Very active, i.e. uranium, plutonium and radium
gamma rays form of energy that you cannot see or feel but they can pass through materials
radiation harmful particles of gamma rays given off by radioactive elements
Nuclear fission- splitting apart Type of nuclear reaction which large nuclei of uranium is split apart to generate large amounts of energy
Nuclear reactor Device in which controls a nuclear reaction
Parts of a nuclear reactor Core, Control rods, Liquid, Shielding
Core Controls the fuel - uranium
Control Rods controls the speed of the nuclear reaction
Liquid carries away the heat ( coolant cools down the reaction)
Shielding stops radiation from getting out (lead)
Nuclear Nuclear Power Plant use heat to released in a nuclear reaction in the form of steam to create electricity
Advantages of a nuclear power plant Conserve fossil fuelsdoe not polluteafter built, does not cost a lot to run
Disadvantages of a nuclear power plant Gives off radiationRadioactive waste are produced
How other priducgts of reactors are used used in cancer treatmentcancer researchdiagnosis
Nuclear Fusion A change in which small nuclei (hydrogen) come together to form a large helium nuclei
Fusion begins with the smallest of all atoms these being Hydrogen
Advantages of nuclear fusion fuel source(H) is easily found and inexpensiveNo radiation, no pollutionProduces more energy than fission or chemical reactionconserves fossil fuels
Disadvantages of nuclear fusion Extrme temperatures are needed to create fusion reactionNeeds large amount od energy to reach temperature for fusion to occuruses more energy than it creates
Describe a fusion reaction that takes place on the sun Hydrogen+Hydrogen-Helium
Chernobyl Accident that caused fire which destroyed containment building. Widepsread radiation contamination. Many people killed and harmed
3 mile island Middletown, PA,1979. Lost coolant partial core meltdown due to equipment failure and human error, no loss of human life.
Created by: stet3