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Chemistry midterm

chemistry terms 4 midterm

what is the si unit for mass? kilogram
what is the si unit for length? meter
what is the si unit for volume? liter
what is the si unit for temperature? kelvin
what is the si unit for time? second
mega (m) ten to the sixth power
kilo (k) ten to the third power
deci (d) ten to the negative first power
centi (c) ten to the negative second power
milli (m) ten to the negative third power
micro ten to the negative sixth power
nano (n) ten to the negative ninth power
what is volume? amount of a 3 dimensional space
what is the basic si unit for volume? meter cube
1 dm3 1 liter
1l 1,000 ml
1ml 1 cm3
meter is what according to volume? volume of a cube
what is temperature? average kinetic energy of atomic motion
what does the speed of kinetic movement give us? the sense of wheither something is hot or cold
fahrenheit (f) equal to 5/9 a celsius or kelvin degree
clesius (c) bassed off freezing and boiling points of water
What is the same degree as a kelvin degree? a celsius degree
Kelvin (k) basic si unit for temperaturebased on the value of absolute zero
what happens at absolute zero? molecular motion stops
absolute zero is what degrees kelvin? zero
absolute zero is what degrees celsius? -273
absolute zero is what degrees fahrenheit? -460
freezing point is what degrees kelvin? 273
freezing point is what degrees celsius? 0
freezing point is what degrees fahrenheit? 32
boiling point is what degrees kelvin? 373
boiling point is what degrees celsius? 100
boiling point is what degrees fahrenheit? 212
how do you convert celsius to kelvin? add 213 to the celsius
how do you convert fahrenheit to celsius? subtract the fahrenheit degree by 21 then divide that number by 1.80
what is density? amount of matter in given volume of substance
how do you calculate density? divide the mass by the volume
how do you calculate volume? divide the mass by the density
how do you calculate mass? multiply density by volume
what is volume displacement? solid matches volume of water once the solid is placed in water
what is matter? has mass and occupies space
solid is rigid, has a fixed shape and a fixed volume
liquid has a definite volume, takes the shape of the container
gas doesn't have a fixed shape or volumetake the shape and volume of the container
plasma super heated gas
solid to a liquid is? melting, heat energy is gained
liquid to a gas is? evaporation, heat energy is gained
solid to a gas is? sublimation, heat energy is gained
gas to a liquid is? condensation, heat energy is lost
liquid to solid is? freezing, heat energy is lost
gas to a solid is? deposition, heat energy is lost
gas to a plasma is? ionization
what is an atom? smallest unit of an element that has all the properties of that element
what is an element? substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by a chemical process
what is a compound? substance composed of given combination of elements that can be broken down into those elements by chemical means
what type of change is a compound into an element? chemical change
Do compounds have different elements? yes, always
Compounds _____________ have same composition even though they have different atoms always
What does all matter consist of? mixtures of pure substances
what is a mixture? a mixture has a variable composition
what is a pure substance? always has the same composition throughout (whether compound or element)
what can mixtures always be seperated into? pure substances (element or compound)
a mixture has two or more substances
homogenous mixture same composition throughout solution
what are examples of homogenous mixtures? salt water, air, brass
heterogeneous mixture mixture whose regions have different properties form those in other regions
what is an example of a heterogeneous mixture? a salad
what may a mixture be classified as? solution, suspension, or colloid
What has an effect on the properties of matter? the size of the particles in a mixture
solution is what type of mixture? homogeneous
solution particles are too small to settle out of solution, they are trapped by a filter
what is an example of a solution? sugar water
suspension is what type of mixture? heterogenous mixture
suspension particles who settle out of mixture or are trapped by a filter, these particles are larger than the particles in a solution
what is an example of a suspension? chocolate milk
colloid bettwen small particles in a solution and the large particles in a suspension
Do colloid particles seperate into layers? no
what is an example of a colloid? fog
Can you use a filter to seperate particles? no
what is energy? the ability to do work
what is temperature measurement of molecular motion and the energy of a substance
what is heat? the flow of energy due to a temperature
what is one way to change energy? change the temperature of a substance
temperature and heat are not the same thing
heat is energy
temperature is man-made, arbitrary scale showing direction of heat flow
heat enters rising of temperature
heat leaves declining of temperature
what is heat measured by? calorimeter
What is temperature measured by? therometer
What is heat measured in? joules
what is temperature measured in? degrees
heat transfer molecules never mix, yet energy transformed from "hotter" water to "colder" water
what is the heat transfer equation? add the initial hot temperature to the initial cold temperature and then divide by two
exothermic reaction when a reaction releases heat or energy
what is an example of an exothermic reaction? a match
endothermic reaction when a reaction absorbs energy or heat
what is an example of an endothermic reaction? melting ice
calorie (cal) the amount of energy (heat) required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one celsius degree
1 calorie is what in joules? 4.184 joules
what is specific heat capacity? amount of energy required to change the temperature of one gram of a substance by one celsius degree
specific heat formula multiply specific heat of substance by mass of substance by temperature change
isotope atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
what do all atoms of the same element have? same number of protons and same number of electrons
what equals a zero net charge when the protons and neutrons balance out
what did the dalton theory assume? all atoms of an element are identical
what did james chadwick discover? atomic nuclei contains neutrons
Dalton's changed theory all atoms of the same element contain same number of protons and electrons, but atoms of a given element may have different number of neutrons
what is the reason for isotopes? the discovery of the neutron
atomic number number of protons in the nucleus
atomic mass sum of the number of neutrons plus the number of protons in a given nucleus
isotope notation specify which isotope of element your talking about
what did dimitri mendeleev first create? the periodic table of elements used
how did dimitri mendeleev organize the elements? by their atomic weight
periodic table chart grouping elements by specific properties
what does the periodic table help predict? some properties of the elements compared to each other
atom size decreases when you move from left to right across the periodic table
atom size increases when you move down a column in the periodic table
energy required to remove an electron increases when you move left to right on the periodic table
energy required to remove an electron decreases when you move down a column in the periodic table
ability to form a chemical bond increases when you move left to right on the periodic table
ability to form a chemical bond decreases when you move down a column in the periodic table
how are elements on the periodic table arranged? by periods (rows) and groups (columns)
atomic increases when you move across a row or period on the periodic table
what do columns of elements on the periodic table define? the element groups
how are elements classified? by their properties
3 main categories of elements metals, nonmetals, metalloids
most metals share what common properties
some properties of metals are lustrous (shiny) malleable (may be hammered) are good conductors of heat and electricity
what are most elements? metals
what are the three groups of metals? alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and transition metals
what are the two transition metal groups? lanthanides and actinides
where are alkali metlas located on the periodic table? group 1A this does not include hydrogen
what is a form of alkali metals salt and other compounds
alkali metals are less dense than other metals
alkali metals have the largest atom size of elements in their row
what type of ionic charge do alkali metals have? a plus one charge
are alkali metals highly reactive? yes
where are alkaline earth metals located on the periodic table? group 2A
alkali earth metals form many compounds
what type of ionic charge do alkaline earth metals have? a plus two charge
alkali earth metals are smaller in size than what? alkali metals
transition metals are located where on the periodic table? on groups 3-12 (1B-8B)
metals are very hard
metals have high melting and boiling points
transition metals are conductors and malleable
what do transition metals form? positively charged ions
transition metals include most elements
where are lanthanides located on the periodic table? top row of the top row section
lanthanides are. silvery metals that tarnish easily
lanthanides are relatively "soft"
lanthanides have high melting and boiling points
lanthanides may react to form.... many different compounds
where are actinides located on the periodic table? bottom row bottom section placed below the periodic table
actinides are all what? readioactive
what do actinides form? positively charged ions
actinides are reactive metals that commonly form compounds with nonmetals
metalloids are what? elements having properties of both metals and nonmetals
what varies in metalloids? boiling points, melting points and densities
metalloids are excellent semiconductors
nonmetals are elements that do not have properties of metals
nonmetals are poor conductors
where are nonmetals located on the periodic table? groups 3A-8A including hydrogen
where are nonmetals found on the periodic table? top right side of periodic table, seperated by a diagonal line
where are halogens found on the periodic table? group 7A
are halogens metals or nonmetals? they are nonmetals
what type of ions do halogens form? ions with a negative one charge
halogens are very reactive
where are noble gases found on the periodic table? group 8A
are noble gases metals or nonmetals? they are nonmetals
noble gases do not react
what is the law of definite proportions? a given compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass, regardless of size or sameple
what is the law of conservation of mass? the mass of the products of a reaction equals the mass of the reactants
what is the law of multiple proportions? the mass ratio for one of the elements in a compound that combines with a fixed mass of another element can be expressed in small whole numbers
what does the law of multiple proportions apply to? different compounds formed from the same two elements
what is atomic mass measured in? atomic mass unit (amu)
atomic mass is the average mass of what isotops
mole SI unit for the amount of a substance
how do you express moles as a quantity of mass molar mass
one mol of any element has what? a mass in grams
What is Bohr's model? 1911 constructed a model of hydrogen atoms with quantized energy levels
quantizied energy is a specific amount of energy
What did Bohr's model suggest? electrons could jump to different orbits by absorbing or emitting a photon of light with exactly the correct energy content
What did Bohr's model energy states represent? certain allowed circular orbits
What did Bohr's model only work for? hydrogen
Who developed the wave mechanical model? Broglie and Schrodigner
What did the wave mechanical model show? electrons may act as a particle and a wave
What did the wave mechanical model work for? every element
What did Bohr's model assume? electrons move in circular orbits, electrons described as orbitals
What may Bohr's model tell us? proability of finding an electron a certain distance from the nucleus
What can't Bohr's model tell us? when electrons occupied a point or how it moves in the atom
how does an electron spin? on its axis
How is an electrons spin represented? by an up or down arrow
electrons have equal but opposite spins
How many electrons may each orbital have two : opposite spin
What is the Pauli Exclusion Principle? orbital may hold a maximum of 2 electrons, those 2 electrons must have opposite spins
How is the number of electrons in an orbital represented? by a superscript
What is the Aufbau Principle? electrons in the atom will occupy the lowest available orbital
Energy levels may overlap
What may the wavelength of a wave tell us? the frequency of a wave
How are wavelengths expresed? meters or nanometers
What is the frequency of a wave dependent on? the wavelength
When wavelength increases frequency decreases
When wavelength decreases frequency increases
What is the "c" factor? the speed of light
What does the dual nature of matter state? matter can act as a particle and a wave
Who determined a way to actually calculate the energy of photons? plank
How do you calculate a change in energy? multiply plank's constant by the frequency
How did Albert Einstein say electromagnetic radiation may be viewed? a stream of particles called photons
What does energy emitted in the form of photons correspond to? the charge in energy of the excited atoms
Different wavelengths carry different what different amount of energy per photons
what are the five trends that may be found on the periodic table? atomic radius, electron affinity, electronegativity, ionization energy, ionic size
What is the atomic radius? the measured distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms chemically bonded together
How is the atomic radius defined? by the edge of last energy level
What is the trend for atomic radius on the periodic table? gradual decrease in size from left to right
What is ionization energy? energy needed to recieve one of an atom's electrons
Ionization energy is a measure of how strongly an atom holds onto its outermost electrons
electron affinity measure of an ability of an atom to attract or gain an electron
What type of charge do atoms have when they tend to accept an electron? a negative charge
Electron affinity does not have noble gases
In electron affinity the closer to the full outer shell, what? the higher the affinity, more energy
What is the trend for electron affinity? increases from left to right and from down to up
Electronegativity reflects the ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond
What is the most electronegative element? Flourine
What does electronegativity correlate to? an atoms ionization energy and electron affinity
What is the trend for boiling and melting point? increase as move left to right and down to up
electromagnetic radiation energy traveling through space containing radiation
what does wavelength tell us? about the frequency
what is frequency measured in? hertz (hz)
qualitive measurement something is unique and is not always in numerical form
A qualitive measurement may be observable
quantitive measurement something that is expressed in numerical form, using numbers
accuracy the results are in the range that they should be in but aren't spot on
precision being spot-on or there
true or false: the celsius degree is smaller than the Fahrenheit unit false
In calculations where significant figures are involved, our final answer has the lowest number of sig figs in our data
what does the f orbital contain both actinides and lanthanides
d orbital contains a total of 10 electrons
halogens very reactive
p orbital first found in second principle energy level
metalloids have properties of both metals and nonmetals
noble gases elements of this group don't want to react with other elements
s orbital only contains 1 orbital
non-metals poor conductors, compromises the right hand side of the periodic table
what is the density formula? mass divided volume
does size effect density? no
how do you name type 1 binary ionic compounds? cation doesn't change, add -ide to the anion
hwo do you name type 2 binary ionic compounds? same rules as type one, but you add roman numerals because they are transition metals
how do you name type 3 binary ionic compounds? use the name of the first element and add -ide to the anion, use prefixes
how do you name an acid if it has oxygen in the anion? if it ends in ate add icif it ends in ite add ous
how do you name an acid if it doesn't have oxygen in the anion? add hydro and ic to the anion
What are the different types of waves? gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet rays, infrared rays, radar, fm, tv, shortwave, am
all elements on the periodic table form what molecules
what is a molecule a collection of atoms that behave as a unit with no electrical charge
molecules and compounds are different
Why are most elements reactive? their atoms want to combine with other elements and form compounds
diatomic molecules are made up of two atoms
neutral atoms atoms with no net charge
how is a cation produced? when one or more electrons are lost from its neutral atom
how is a anion produced? when one or more electrons are gained from its neutral atom
what must the net charge of any compound be? zero
Created by: ricecakes244