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# 7th Grade Vocabulary

Term | Definition |
---|---|

absolute value | The distance away from 0 (on the number line), making the value positive. We indicate absolute value by putting two bars around the number. |-4| |

additive inverse | Simply means changing the sign of the number and adding it to the original number to get an answer equal to 0. |

decimals | A number whose whole number part and the fractional part is separated by a decimal point. |

differences | Less than; decreased by; subtracted from; fewer |

distance | The length between two points (or objects). |

divisor | The number that "goes into" the dividend. |

estimation | A rough calculation of the value, number, quantity, or extent of something. |

fractions | Real numbers that represent a part of a whole. A fraction bar separates the part from the whole. |

horizontal | Going left to right. Parallel to the horizon. |

integers | All whole numbers and their negative counterparts. |

multiplicative inverse | Another name for reciprocal. What you multiply by a number to get 1. |

negative | Are used to describe quantities less than zero. |

opposite | Positive and negative signs are called opposites. They are both the same number of spaces or the same distance from zero on the number line. |

positive | Are used to describe quantities greater than zero. |

rational numbers | Any number that can be written by dividing one integer by another. Any number that can be written as a fraction or ratio. |

reciprocal | A number that is another number that, when multiplied together, their product is 1. To find this, flip the fraction. |

terminates | Decimals that end. a decimal which has a finite number of digits, that is, it comes to an end and doesn't go on forever. |

vertical | Going up and down. At right angles to the horizon. |

whole numbers | A number with no fractional or decimal part. Cannot be negative. |

zero pairs | A pair of numbers whose sum is zero |

complex fraction | A fraction in which the denominator and numerator or both contain fractions. |

constant of proportionality | The proportion stays the same. |

coordinate plane | A flat surface formed by the intersection of two lines or axes: the horizontal line known as the x-axis, and the vertical line known as the y-axis. The x - and y- axes intersect (cross) at the origin (0,0) |

origins | (0,0) on the coordinate plane. |

proportional relationships | As one amount gets bigger or smaller. The other amount will also get bigger or smaller by the same ratio. |

ratios | A comparison of two quantities. |

unit rate | A rate that has 1 as its denominator. |

commission | A fee paid to someone for their services in helping to sell something to a customer. |

discount | A reduction in the normal price. Price reduction; sale; clearance; savings. |

equation | A statement that the values of two mathematical expressions are equal (indicated by the sign =) |

gratuity | A "tip" - a gift, usually in the form of money that you give someone in turn for their service. |

markdown | Reduce the indicated price of an item |

markup | Stores and manufacturers usually increase the price of their products to make a profit. |

part | A ratio that compares a selected number of parts to a number of other parts in a whole. OR a ratio that compares a selected number of parts to the total number of parts in a whole. |

percent | Means per hundred. Ratios that compare a quantity to 100. |

percent decrease | A measure of percent change, which is the extent to which something loses value. |

percent error | A measure of how innaccurate a measurement is, standardized to how large the measurement is |

percent increase | A measurement of percent change, which is the extent to which a variable gains intensity, magnitude, extent, or value. |

proportion | A number sentence where two ratios are equal. |

sales tax | A fee charged on something purchased. Usually determined by a percentage. |

simple interest | A fee that someone pays in order to borrow money. |

tip | Money that you give to someone in return for their service. |

whole | All, everything, total amount. |

coefficient | Any number that is used to multiply a variable. |

distributive property | Take the term outside of the variable and multiply it to all the terms inside of the parenthesis. |

expression | A mathematical phrase that contains numbers, variables, and /or operators. |

factor | The reverse of the distributive property. |

terms | A number by itself or the product of a number and variable. |

arithmetic | The branch of mathematics dealing with the properties and manipulation of numbers. |

algebraic | Relating to or involving algebra. |

equivalent | Equal in value, amount, |

inequality | A mathematical sentence that contains a sign indicating that the values on each side of it are not equal. |

solution | An assignment of values to the unknown variables that makes the equality in the equation true. |

variable | A letter or symbol used in place of a quantity we do not know yet. |

adjacent angles | Angles that share a vertex and a common side. |

angle | Formed by two rays with a common endpoint. |

area | The size of a surface or is the amount of space inside a two-dimensional object. Written units squared. |

complementary angles | Two angles whose sum is 90 degrees. |

congruent | Angles that are related because they have the same measure. |

degree | A unit for measuring the size of an angle, or a unit for measuring temperature. |

dimension | The measurable size of something. Often refers to length, width and height. |

distributive property | Multiplying a number is the same as multiplying its addends by the number, then adding the products. |

polygon | A closed plane figure with at least three straight sides. |

scale | The ratio of the length in the drawing to the actual length. |

scale drawing | A drawing that is similar to an actual object - just made bigger or smaller. |

supplementary angles | Two angles whose sum is 180 degrees. |

two-dimensional | Flat shapes. |

vertical angles | Angles formed by two intersecting line that are opposite of each other, they have equal measures. |

circle | The set of all points that are equal distance from a point that is called the center. |

circumference | The distance around the circle. The perimeter of the circle. |

cubes | Is a three-dimensional solid that has six congruent square faces. |

diameter | A chord that passes through the center of the circle. Twice the length of the radius. |

geometric figures | Any point, line, segment, ray, angle, polygon, curve, region, plane, surface, solid, etc. Formally, a geometric figure is any set of points on a plane or in space. |

pi | The ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. Equaling 3.14 or 22/7. |

quadrilaterals | A polygon with four sides. |

radius | A line segment that had one endpoint at the center and the other on the circle. Half of the diameter. |

triangles | Has three sides and three angles. |

apex | The highest point, the point at the top of a shape. |

cone | Has one circular base and one vertex. |

cubes | All faces are identical polygons. |

cylinder | Has two parallel bases that are congruent. |

derive | Extract |

derivation | The difference between a value in frequency distribution and a reference value. |

formula | A mathematical rule written using symbols, usually as an equation describing a certain relationship between quantities. |

polyhedron | A 3D figure that is made up of regions that are in the shape of polygons. The regions share a side. |

right prisms | A 3D figure that has two polygon bases that are parallel and congruent, as well as lateral faces that are parallelograms. |

right rectangular prisms | Has all right angles, the bases are parallel, and the lateral faces are parallelograms. |

right rectangular pyramids | Has a rectangle as its base. All of its lateral faces are triangles. |

slicing | Cross section. You can get different 2D shapes. |

sphere | A set of points in a space that are given distance from a center point. |

surface area | The area of a shape's surface. |

three-dimensional | A shape that has length, width, and height. |

vertex | The point of intersection of rays or lines that form an angle. |

volume | Refers to the number of cubic units needed to fill the figure. |

biased sample | Something that does not fairly represent the whole. |

box plot | Displays data along a number line and splits the data into quartiles. |

distributions | The range and spread of a data set. It describes the shape of a data set when displayed on a histogram. |

dot plot | A number line long enough to encompass all numbers in a sample, showing a dot over the position corresponding to each number. |

estimate | To make an approximate calculation, often based on rounding. |

interquartile range | The difference between the upper and lower quartile. |

lower quartile | The median of the lower half. |

median | The middle number of a data set when all of the numbers are written in order, from least to greatest, |

mode | The item in the data set that occurs most often. |

mean absolute deviation | Add all the numbers, then divide the sum by how many items there are. |

measure of center | A single number that is a summary of all of a data set's values. |

measure of variability | Describes how the values of a data set vary. |

population | Whole set of individuals, items or data from which a statistical sample is drawn. |

predictions | A future event foretold by using a trend formed from the collected historical data. |

random sample | A chance pick from a number of items, like drawing a number out of a hat. |

range | The difference between the largest and smallest number. |

spread | Describes the variability of a data set, that is, how the data is spread out and varies from the mean. |

survey | Is a data collection tool or list of questions used to gather information about individuals or group. |

upper quartile | The median of the upper half. |

visual overlap | Are heights that both dot graphs have in common. |

compound event | Involves finding the probability of more than one event occurring at the same time. |

dependent event | Conditional. Where an event is affected by other events |

event | One or more outcomes of an experiment |

experiment | A repeatable procedure with a set of possible results. |

experimental probability | Is probability that is determined on the basis of the results of an experiment repeated many times. |

frequency | How often something occurs. |

independent event | Not affected by previous events. |

likelihood | 0 - 100% 0 unlikely 0.5 neither likely or unlikely 1 likely |

outcome | A possible result of an experiment. |

probability | How likely something is to happen. |

relative frequency | How often something happens divided by all outcomes. |

sample space | All the possible outcomes of an experiment. |

simple event | Is one that can only happen in one way - in other words, it has a single outcome |

simulation | The process of imitating a real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas |

theoretical probability | The theory behind probability. |

trial | In Probability: A single run of an experiment. |

tree diagram | A tool in the fields of general mathematics, probability, and statistics that helps calculate the number of possible outcomes of an event or problem, and to cite those potential outcomes in an organized way. |

uniform probability model | A model in which every outcome has equal probability. |