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BIOC lipids

Lipids

QuestionAnswer
Lipids can be extracted with this Organic Solvents (CHCl3/ MeOH, 2:1) -2
Common Chemical Property of Lipids Hydrophobicity
Lipids are biomolecules that partition into the ____ phase organic solvent
Function of phospholipids (permeability barrier) membrane structure
Function of waxes waterproof coatings
function of fat energy storage
function of coenzyme Q electron carrier
function of steroid hormones and prostalglandins signal transduction (cell to cell communication)
function of flavonoids pigments
Glycolipids lipids often linked to sugars (important constituent of cell membrane)
Lipoproteins lipids linked to proteins (HDL, LDL)
lipids have what kind of bond when linked to other classes of biomolecules covalent
What are the simplest lipids Fatty acids
Fatty acids are... building blocks of many complex lipids, central intermediates in metabolism
Triacylglycerols are... storage fats (derived from fatty acids)
Phosphoglycerides are... major lipid component of cell membranes (derived from fatty acids)
Common fatty acids have how many C atoms? an even number of C atoms
What is the trivial name for C-12 laurate
What is the trivial name for C-14 myristate
What is the trivial name for C-16 Palmitate
What is the trivial name for C-18 Stearate
What is the trivial name for C-20 Arachidate
What do fatty acids do when dispersed in water? aggregate spontaneously to form roughly spherical micelles
What are the smallest and simplest lipid aggregates? Micelles
The cloudy appearence of soapy water is caused by what? the scattering of light by micelles
What formation are double bonds of polyunsaturated fatty acids usually in? they have double bonds separated by a methylene carbon (they are methylene bridged NOT conjugated) double, single, single, double
Unsaturated double bonds in naturally occuring fatty acids are usually found in what formation. Cis form (Trans fatty acids can be made by hydrogenation)
What effect does saturation have on melt point? Unsaturation drastically lowers the melt point
What is used for effective separation of fatty acids? partition chromatography (esp. gas chromatography) - when combined with mass spec. the mix can be quickly separated, quantitated and identified
What is gas chromatography? Molecules are separated based on their partition between a stationary phase and a mobile carrier gas.
As the column temperature increases _____ is eluted progressively less volatile compounds (higher molecular weight) compounds are eluted.
carboxylic acids + alcohols = ester (condensation)(water taken away)
carboxylic acids + acids = acid anhydrides (condensation)
What is the most important storage form of fatty acids triacylglycerols
What is the major constituent of fats and oils TAGs
Why are fats and oils so insoluble in water? because Triacylglycerols (major constituent of fats and oils)have polar carboxylic acids of the fatty acids which are tied up as less polar esters.
What is the melt point and unsaturation level of animal fat? high melt point, low unsaturation
What is the melt point and unsaturation for plant oil? low melt point, high unsaturation
What makes fine chocolate melt in your mouth? Cocoa butter has relatively simple TAG composition that results in unique properties (SOS fats = stearic/ saturated fats that are symmetrical and behave as a single TAG. Lipids of cocoa butter are homogeneous. Cheap chocolates use less expensive fats.
What is saponification? hydrolysis of fat with alkali/base (NaOH, lye) to produce glycerol and soap
TAGs are stored in ___________ adipose connective tissue. adipose cells are filled with a single large droplet of TAG lipid: the cytoplasm and organelles are squeezed to the periphery.
Phosphorous is one of the essential elements of life. What is the Chemical formula for phosphoric acid? H3PO4 (a triprotic acid) -Strong
What happens during phosphorylation? Everytime phosphate is added negative charge is added = more polar and more soluble
Phosphoric acid + alcohol = phosphate ester + h2o
Phosphoric acid + acid = phosphoanhydride + h2o
How would fatty acids in the lipids of cold water fish differ from warm water fish? cold water are more unsaturated
what happens when phospholipids are put in water? They spontaneously aggregate to form vesicles or liposomes (larger than micelles)
unilamellar liposome roughly spherical structure formed by a double layer of phospholipids--it can be considered a sort of protocell (bilayer of membrane surrounding an aqueous compartment)
this provides a means for delivery of polar, water soluble drugs that would not normally be able to enter a cell synthetic liposome- (injected intravenously) -can fuse with lipid bilayer of a target cell membrane and thereby deliver its contents into the cell.
The cellular oxidation of fatty acids is highly___ exergonic
Created by: MichBo