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Chemistry 110

A review of terms for the final

QuestionAnswer
What is chemistry? the science dealing with matter (and its structures and properties) and the changes that it undergoes
What is science? systematized knowledge derived from observation, study, and experimentation.
What is a hypothesis? a first guess
what is a theory? a mature, thoroughly tested hypothesis.
what is matter? anything that has mass and volume
what are the three types of changes? chemical, physical, mathematical.
what type of change does NOT involve a change in composition? physical.
what type of change DOES involve a change in composition? chemical
what is a mathematical change? math that you do after you know what is happening to the matter (physical, chemical.)
what is precision? the ability to reproduce a result.
what is accuracy? the measure of how well a result reflects reality.
the more ___________ a set of data, the more likely it is to be ________. precise, accurate.
are non zero numbers significant? yes.
are the zeros in between non zero numbers significant? yes.
are the zeros to the left of the first non zero digit significant? nope.
Extensive depends on size
intensive doesn't depend on size
Non uniform heterogeneous
uniform homogeneous
what are the two types of homogeneous solutions? solutions and substances
what are atoms? the smallest component of a molecular compound that still exhibits the qualities of that element
what is a molecule? smallest component of a molecular compound that still exhibits teh qualities of that molecule
What defines an element? the atomic number
what is the atomic number? it defines the number of protons in the atom.
what is the mass number? the number of protons PLUS neutrons in an atom.
what is a nucleon? a proton or a neutron.
What is an isotope? atoms of a given element that have different numbers of neutrons and have different mass numbers.
Density equals.. mass over volume
degrees F equals (degrees C x 1.8) + 32.
degrees C equals (degrees F - 32) / 1.8
How do you calculate the average atomic weight of an element? you take the (mass in AMU x percent abundance) / 100
Do two electrons in the same orbital have the same spin? no, they're opposite
The d orbitals occur in groups of ___________ and hold up to _________ electrons five, 10.
Substances that have the same electron configuration are... isoelectronic.
POsub4 charge 3- phosphate
SOsub4 charge 2- sulfate
ClOsub2 charge 1- chlorite
NHsub4 charge 1+ Ammonium
NOsub2 charge 1- Nitrite
AsOsub4 charge 3- Arsenate
COsub3 charge 2- Carbonate
CrOsub4 charge 2- Chromate
NOsub3 charge 1- Nitrate
ClOsub3 charge 1- Chlorate
if you take away one Oxygen from a common complex ion, the name goes from -ate to ite.
when you add a hydrogen to a common complex ion, the charge... goes down by one
What are some common things with a charge of plus one? H, Na, K, Ag, and NHsub4
what are some common things with a charge of plus two? Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Ni
What is something with a charge of plus three? Al (aluminum)
What are some common things with a charge of minus one? F, Cl, Br, I, OH, Nitrate, Chlorate
What are some common things with a charge of minus two? O, Osub2, S, Sulfate, Carbonate, Chromate
What are some common things with a charge of minus three? phosphate, arsenate
how do you calculate the percent of a compound that is a particular element, for example: what percent Cu is in CuSOsub4 take the molar mass of Cu and divide it by the molar mass of the entire compound, then multiply by 100
What is FeClsub2 called? Iron(II)chloride
What is NO called? Nitrogen monoxide
What is CaClsub2 called? Calcium chloride
What is Alsub2 Osub3 called? Aluminum(III)oxide
What is AgNOsub3 called? silver nitrate
What is MgSOsub4 called? Magnesium Sulfate
What is Nsub2 O called? Dinitrogen Monoxide
if the electronegativity of a compound is greater than 1.7, the compound is likely to be... ionic
if the electronegativity of a compound is less than 0.7, the compound is likely to be ... molecular, covalent.
CO is called carbon monoxide
You don't need roman prefixes if... metals in group 1, group 2, Ag, and ammonium
You need roman numerals if... if it is a metal that is not in group 1, group 2, silver or ammonium
MnS is called Manganese(II) sulfide
What makes bases easily recognizable? the hydroxide (OH one minus) ion
What are the two types of acids? binary and pseudo binary
"Ate" ions make _____ acids "ic"
"ite" ions make ______ acids "ous"
When naming a binary acid, you have to have... the state that it is in
What is HCl called? you can't name it because it doesn't have a state
what is HCl(aq) called Hydrochloric acid
What are the six types of reactions? Synthesis, decomp, combustion, exchange (precip), acid/base, redox
Created by: akfehr