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IPC final exam vocab


Define Hypothesis A possible explanation for a problem using what you know and observe
Experiment tests the effect of one thing on another using controlled conditions
variable quantity that can have more than one value
dependent variable value changes according to the changes in the other variables
independent variable variable you can change to see what effect it will have on the dependent variable
control standard by which the test results can be compared
constant factor that doesnt change when other variables change
scientific law a statement about what happens in nature and that seems to be true all the time
scientific theory explains the scientific law
solid particles packed closely together
liquid particles move more freely than a solid and have enough kinetic energy to slip out of ordered arrangement
gas particles are far apart & the attractive forces between the particles are overcome
plasma matter consisting of positively and negetively charged particles
diffusion spreading of particles throughout a given volume until they are uniformably distributed.
boiling point temperature at which the pressure of the vapor in the liquid is equal to the external pressure acting on the surface of the liquid
melting point temperature at which a solid begins to liquefy
freezing point when the temperature of a liquid reaches 0 degrees C.
absolute zero (0 K) the coldest possible temperature
heat of fusion the amount of energy required to change a substance from a solid phase to a liquid phase at its melting point
heat of vaporization the amount of energy required for the liquid at its boiling point to become a gas
Bernoulli's principle as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases
Archimedes' principle an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Boyles' law if you decrease the volume of a container of gas and hold the temperature constant, the pressure of the gas will increase
Charles' law the volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature, as long as the pressure does not change
viscosity a fluids resistance to flow
colloid a type of mixture that never settles
compound a substance in which the atoms of two or more elements are combined in a fixed proportion
solution mixture that has the same composition, color, taste, and density throughout and is mixed at the atomic or molecular level
substance either an element or a compound
homogeneous mixture contains 2 or more gaseous, liquid or solid substances blended evenly throughout
heterogeneous mixture a mixture in which different materials can be distinguished easily
element if all atoms in a substance are alike, that substance is the element
suspension a heterogeneou mixture containing a liquid in which visible particles settle
tyndall effect the scattering of light by colloidal mixtures
dilute percentage by volume of the solute
supersaturated solution that contains more solute than a saturated one at the same temperature
saturated a solution that contains all the solute it can hold at a given temperature
unsaturated solution that can dissolve more solute at a given temperature
alloy solid solution made by melting the metal solute and solvent together
amorphous solid a solid which lacks definate form
isotope atoms of the same elements that have different numbers of neutrons
covalent bond attraction that forms between atoms when they share electrons
ionic bond force of attraction between the opposite charges of ions on an ionic compound
sublimation the process of a solid changing directly to a gas without forming a liquid
synthesis two or more substances combine to form another substance
decomposition when one substance breaks down or decomposes
double- displacement the positive ion of one compound replaces the positive ion of another to form 2 new compounds
single-displacement when one element replaces another element in a compound
catalyst a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being permanently changed itself
inhibitor used to combine with one of the reactants
Created by: skinnyliz