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Pearson GCSE Chemistry

If a metal is described as ductile what does that mean? It can be stretched out to make a thin wire
If a metal is described as malleable what does that mean? It can be hammered into a different shape without shattering.
What is a catalyst? A substance that speeds up a process, without itself being used up.
State the two meanings of the word oxidise To gain oxygen in a chemical reaction, or to lose electrons.
What is rusting and what two substances must be present for it to occur? The corrosion of iron or steel. (Water and oxygen must be present for rusting to occur.)
Explain the meaning of sacrificial protection. Using a more reactive metal to protect iron from rusting
Write a half equation for the oxidation of Magnesium. Mg(s) --> Mg2+ (aq) + 2e-
What is electroplating? Using electricity to coat one metal with a thin layer of another metal.
Write the half equations for the electroplating of copper by silver. (State at which electrode each reaction occurs) At the silver anode Ag(s) -->Ag+ (aq) + e- At the copper cathode Ag+(aq) + e- -->Ag(s)
Why is coating steel cans in tin not an example of sacrificial protection? Because tin is less reactive than iron
What is an alloy? A metal with one or more other elements (usually metals) added to improve its properties.
Explain why alloys are often stronger than pure metals. Different sized atoms distort the metal structure and make it difficult for layers of atoms to slide over each other.
What is an alloy? A mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal
Give a reason for alloying a metal To make it harder, to make it less reactive
Explain why alloys can be harder than pure metals Different size of atoms disturb the layers to stop them sliding over each other
What are the typical properties of transition metals? High melting point, high density, form coloured compounds, act as catalysts for particular reactions.
How can rusting of iron be prevented? By excluding water and oxygen
What can you exclude to reduce rusting of iron. water and oxygen
How else can rusting of iron be prevented? By sacrificial protection
What is sacrificial protection? Coating the metal in a more reactive metal that will react in preference to the one you are trying to protect
What is electroplating? Using electrolysis to coat the metal to be protected in a thin layer of another metal
Why is electroplating used? It improves appearance and increases resistance to corrosion.
Why is iron alloyed to make steel to improve resistance to corrosion and increase strength.
How does alloying gold increase its strength The different sized atoms mixed with the gold atoms disrupt the layers of identical gold atoms and stop them rolling over one another.
What properties of gold make it suitable for its uses unreactive - jewellry lasts well
What is copper used for? Explain your answers. wires - because it is a good conductor, water pipes - because it is unreactive
What causes corrosion of metals? oxidation
What is aluminium used for? Drinks cans - lightweight, ladders - low density
What is brass used for? Door fittings - unreactive, attractive
What is magnalium used for? Scientific instruments - increased malleable,lower density than aluminium
What is another name for oxidation of metals? corrosion
What are irons properties? High melting point, high density, form coloured compounds, act as catalysts for particular reactions.