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CC12

Pearson GCSE Chemistry

QuestionAnswer
What is a Reversible Reaction? A reaction that can go backwards as well as forwards. (The products can turn into the reactants)
What does it mean if a reversible chemical reaction is in a state of dynamic equilibrium? The rate of the forward and backwards reactions are equal
What can you say about the concentrations of reactions and products when the reaction is in a state of dynamic equilibrium? They are constant
Write the balanced equation for the industrial manufacture of ammonia. N2 + 3H2 ⇋ 2NH3
What is the pressure at which ammonia is manufactured? Why is it manufactured at this pressure? 200 atmosphere as this shifts the equilibrium to the right increasing the yield of ammonia
What is the temperature at which ammonia is manufactured? Why is it manufactured at this temperature? 450oC this shifts the equilibrium to the left decreasing the yield of ammonia but it is made at a much faster rate
Why is an iron catalyst used in the manufacture of ammonia? To speed up the reaction
What is the effect of raising the temperature on the position of the equilibrium of an exothermic reaction? Equilibrium shifts left yield decreases
What is the effect of increasing gas pressure on the position of the equilibrium? Equilibrium shifts to the side with fewer gas molecules
What is the effect of decreasing the temperature on the position of the equilibrium of an exothermic reaction? Equilibrium shifts right yield increases
What is the effect on the equilibrium of increasing the concentration of the reactants or the products? of products—equilibrium shifts left, yield decreases. …of reactants—equilibrium shifts right, yield increase
What is the effect on the equilibrium of decreasing the concentration of the reactants or the of reactants equilibrium shifts left, yield decreases
What is a reversible reaction? A reaction which can go from reactants to products but also from products to reactants
What chemical symbol represents a reversible reaction?
If a reaction is exothermic in the forward direction what will it be in the reverse direction? Endothermic
Two reactants require 30kJ to turn into products. What energy transfer is involved when the products turn into reactants? 30kJ is released
What is equilibrium? The point in a reversible reaction when the forward and reverse reactions are occurring at the same rate
How is the amount of reactant changing at equilibrium? It is not changing
How is the amount of product changing at equilibrium? It is not changing
A reaction is exothermic in the forward direction. What will occur if the temperature is increased? The backward reaction will increase as it is endothermic and will reduce the temperature
A reaction is endothermic in the forward direction. What will occur if the temperature is increased? The forward reaction will increase as it is endothermic and will reduce the temperature
A reaction is at equilibrium when some product is removed. What will occur? The forward reaction will increase as that will increase the amount of product
A reaction is at equilibrium when the concentration of a reactant is increased. What will occur? It will move in the forward reaction to reduce the amount of the reactant
The reaction below is at equilibrium. What will occur when the pressure is increased?2H₂(g) + O₂(g) ⇌ 2H₂O(g) The forward reaction will increase as there are fewer molecules on the right. This will reduce the total number of molecules and therefore the pressure
What is the Haber process reaction 3H2(g) + N2 (g) ⇌ 2NH3(g)
What temperature is used for the Haber process? 450 oC
Where does the nitrogen for the Haber Process come from? Nitrogen from the atmosphere
Where does the hydrogen for the Haber Process come from? Hydrogen from natural gas
Why are the products of the reaction cooled? To turn the ammonia into a liquid and remove it, so driving the equilibrium in the forward reaction some more
What is a dynamic equilibrium? A reversible reaction where the forward reaction and the backward reaction happen at the same rate
What catalyst is used for the Haber process? Iron catalyst
What pressure is used for the Haber process? 200 atmospheres