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The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. psychology
A conception of apparent relationships among observed events. theory
John B. Watson argued for a psychology based on the study of? measurable behavior
Cognitive psychologists are specifically interested in studying human? thinking and memory
Empirical research must be supported by? evidence
The preferred method for asking questions about cause and effect relationships. experiment
A nerve cell. neuron
The brain and spinal cord make up the? central nervous system
If an infant does not receive tactile stimulation, what could be impaired? (All of the above.) Sense of comfort and security. Learning and communication. Activation of reflexes.
An enduring emotional tie. attachment
The process by which sensations are organized to form inner representations of the world. perception
What sensory system is dominant for most individuals? vision
Gestalt psychologists have noted the rules in the way humans integrate bits and pieces of sensory stimulation into meaningful whole experiences. The rules are referred to as the laws of? perceptual organization
When we say that we are "conscious of" seeing something or hearing a sound, we are referring to consciousness as? sensory awareness
According to Freud, this contains events that are unavailable to us under almost all circumstances. unconscious
According to behaviorists, this is any relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior that occurs because of experience. learning
To help a child who watches violent programs act less aggressively, one should inform the child of? (All of the above.) Behavior they see in the media does not represent the behavior of most people. Behaviors he or she watches are not real. There can be life changing consequences to violent behavior.
What are the 3 stages of memory proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin? sensory, short-term, long-term
Forgetting, which occurs because new information inhibits the retrieval of previously learned information or because previously learned information inhibits the retrieval of new information, is explained by? interference theory
After a penetrating brain wound, a patient could not form new episodic memories. What part of his brain was probably damaged? hippocampus
Cognition, which also refers to thinking, involves? (All of the above.) Attending to information. Representing information mentally. Attempting to understand information.
Hindrances to problem solving ability include? (All of the above.) Function fixedness. Mental set. Serial processing.
Communication of thoughts and feelings through symbols that are arranged according to the rules of grammar. language
For a communication system to involve the use of true language, what 3 characteristics must be demonstrated? semanticity, infinite creativity, displacement
How did David Wechsler define intelligence? Capacity of an individual to understand the world and to cope with its challenges.
What are possible causes of mental retardation? (All of the above.) Prenatal exposure to alcohol. Childhood accidents. Malnutrition.
George is an adult and wants to enhances his own intellectual functioning. What are some techniques he could use to achieve this goal? (All of the above.) Visit other countries. Choose intelligent friends. Read many different kinds of material.
Motives activate behavior and propel the organism toward? goals
Eating because you are bored, depressed, or socializing, demonstrates the role of what factors in regulating the hunger drive? learned behavior, psychological factors, external incentives
Feeling states with cognitive, physiological, and behavioral components. emotions
Reasonably stable patterns of actions, feelings, and motives. personality
What theory of personality emphasizes unconscious motives and inner conflicts? psychodynamic
Looking at the role of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status, are all encompassed by? sociocultural perspective
Attitudes and evaluations about males and females that are based on overgeneralizations. stereotypes
The study of how psychological issues affect physical illness. health psychology
A demand made on an organism to adapt. stress
People who are psychologically ______, are less likely to become ill under the impact of stress. (All of the above.) hardy, easy going, optimistic
Goals that produce mixed motives that consist of both positive and negative aspects. approach avoidance conflicts
What best describes the beliefs of Albert Ellis? Emotions are not caused by events, but are the result of beliefs.
Individuals who are highly driven, competitive, impatient, and aggressive. type A
Suzanne Kobasa describes psychological ______ as a phenomenon that allows individuals to resist stress. hardiness
How does the ability to predict a stressor affect the resulting level of stress? Does it reduce it or increase it? reduce
Does social support tend to increase or decrease the effects of stress? decrease
According to Hans Selye, what are the 3 stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome? (in order) 1. Alarm 2. Resistance 3. Exhaustion
Boris has been under a great deal of stress. How is this likely to affect his immune system? It will weaken his immune system.
This approach recognizes that genetic predispositions do not develop in a vacuum, but interact with other factors. multi-factorial
What is the leading cause of death in the United States? coronary heart disease
These are among the most common stress-related physical ailments. headaches
What can be used to lower physiological arousal? (All of the above.) progressive relaxation, biofeedback, meditation
Exercise can help reduce the risk of? (All of the above.) depression, anxiety, cancer
Throughout human history, until modern times, people have often assumed that psychological disorders resulted from? supernatural causes
A factor that determines whether or not a behavior or feeling is evidence of a psychological disorder may be? Whether the behavior or feeling is appropriate to the situation. Whether the behavior or feeling is appropriate to the norms of the dominant culture.
What criteria have been suggested to differentiate normal and abnormal behavior? (*Ans: all of the above EXCEPT - risk taking*) Behaviors that are rare, distort reality, impair functioning.
The DSM-IV groups disorders on the basis of? observable symptoms
Based on recent carefully controlled studies, what group is more likely to experience feelings of anxiety and depression and is more prone to suicide? young people ages 15 to 24
Free-floating anxiety is a feature of? generalized anxiety disorder
Terry was raped a week ago. She has been overwhelmed with feelings of anxiety and helplessness. Her doctor refers to her condition as? acute stress disorder
Dissociative disorders involve a loss of _______ that cannot be attributed to organic problems. memory
Survey and interview methods have revealed that a majority of the people who are diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder report ______ abuse during childhood. sexual abuse
Somatoform disorders involve? The conversion of anxiety into a physical form.
What neurotransmitter is associated with depression? serotonin
Most suicides are linked to? Feelings of depression and hopelessness.
Your best friend discloses the fact that he or she is thinking of committing suicide. What should you do? Take them seriously. Show you care. Encourage them to seek help.
Schizophrenic symptoms include core problems with? memory, attention, thinking, communication
An important neurotransmitter involved in schizophrenic symptoms. dopamine
These theorists suggest that antisocial personality disorder results from improper encoding and interpretation of social formation. cognitive theorists
In psychotherapy, these 2 engage in systematic interaction that applies psychological principles in order to help the patient overcome psychological disorders. therapist and client
Psychotherapy is used to affect the client's? (All of the above.) actions, emotions, thoughts
Psychotherapy is helpful for dealing with? (All of the above.) Severe psychological disorders, like schizophrenia. Mild adjustment problems, such as a change in employment. Dysfunctional habits, such as drinking.
By the end of the 20th century, in the United States, most people with psychological disorders will live in? The community.
Psychodynamic therapies assume that psychological disorders originate in? early childhood experiences and inner conflicts
The aim or goal of psychodynamic treatment is? insight
You are a modern psychodynamic therapist. You will be more directive than a traditional psychoanalyst and you will focus on ____ more than the id. ego
Unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuineness, are important qualities for a? client-centered therapist
Your therapist teaches you progressive muscle relaxation and then works with you to make a list of circumstances that disturb you, from the minor ones to up through the worst you can imagine. She is using a behavioral technique called? systematic desensitization
Pairing drug-induced nausea / vomiting or electric shock with unwanted behaviors or impulses. aversive conditioning
The operant technique used to help formerly hospitalized patients live in communities. social skills training
Assertiveness training involves teaching individuals to? Honestly and directly express their feelings and rights in an appropriate manner.
These therapists focus on beliefs and attitudes that create and compound their clients' psychological problems. cognitive therapists
Biological treatments involving even minor tranquilizers need to be monitored due to concerns about? side effects and physical dependence
Biological treatments, such as psychoactive substances, generally target the activity of _____________ in the brain. neurotransmitters
Electroconvulsive therapy is an appropriate treatment for what specific condition? Patients with major depression who don't respond to anti-depressants.
According to research, what is the best treatment approach for chronically depressed people? A combination of cognitive therapy and anti-depressant medication.
This psychology studies the nature and causes of behavior and mental processes in social situations. social psychology
Research has shown that mere__________ __________ to any stimulus increases the likelihood that people will like it and react favorably to it. repeated exposure
Persuasive communicators usually have a good deal of? (All of the above.) expertise, attractiveness, trustworthiness
A method for getting people to comply, in which a small request is followed by a larger request. foot-in-the-door technique
A classic experiment by Muzafer Sherif (1961) demonstrated how prejudice can be created and reduced. How did Sherif reduce prejudice between groups? Having them work together to achieve common goals.
The tendency to assume that others act mainly on the basis of their dispositions (e.g. personality traits). fundamental attribution error
In the self-serving bias, to what do we tend to attribute our successes? To what do we attribute our failures? Credit successes to internal dispositional factors. Attribute failures to situational influences.
When behavior or attitudes are adjusted to go along with a group norm. conformity
The process by which the presence of others improves our performance. social facilitation
Rules that govern group decision making. social decision schemes
What is the polarization effect in groups? Group decisions tend to take a more extreme position than individual decisions.
When members of a group share similar attitudes, these attitudes can become intensified and decisions are more likely to involve? risks
When a group pays less attention to the external realities than to its own cohesiveness. group think
Poor group decisions are likely to occur when? (All of the above.) The group believes in their being morally correct. The members are expected to conform to keep peace. Feelings that the group is above the law and not to be questioned.
When members of a group lose normal behavioral restraints and do things they wouldn't do on their own. deindividualization
Sometimes people who observe others in need don't wind up helping them because? (All of the above.) They don't know what to do. They think someone else will help. They don't think it's an emergency.
According to cross-cultural research, people from these to parts of the world tend to maintain greater personal space than other cultures. northern Europe, United States
Created by: marjoriedasep