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Biochemistry

bioenergetics & metabolism & membranes

QuestionAnswer
Main component in composition of membranes? lipids(phospholipids) + proteins
What is the diameter of a membrane? 5-8um meaning multiple differences
Is the membrane visible in an electron microscope? no
What are the membranes like in terms of permeability and compartments? selectively permeable and separate compartments
What is the outermost layer of animal cells? cytoplasmic membrane
Is the membrane ridgid or flexible? flexible
What is the memb. vulnerable to&how much? somewhat vuln. to osmotic pressure
FMM:waht structures are on the extracellular side? glycolipid (sphingolipid in human) and glycoprotein made up of oligosacharrides
FMM:waht type of layer does it have? lipid bilayer
FMM:where is cholesterol found? cytoplasmic side in with the individual phosopholipids
FMM:what types of proteins are found on the cytoplasmic side? peripheral protein or integral protein
FMM:what are the 2 types of peripheral proteins? can be covalently linked to a lipid and do not span the mem. or non-covalent bond
FMM: how do Ca++ and peripheral proteins interact? Ca++ embedded between negatively charged phosopholipids and negatively charged R-groups of peripheral proteins
FMM: What are the types of integral proteins? single transmembrane helix or a mutiple trans-membrane helix
What are the three types of membrane lipids motion of single phospholipids in a bilayer? uncatalyzed transverse "flip-flop" diffusion, trasverse diffusion catalyzed by flippase, or uncatalyzed lateral diffusion
How does the flippase work? lowers activation energy for lipids to get to other side of the membrane
How are the lipids kept inside the bilayer? the activation energy is high
Why are the inner and outer membranse not reflected as mere images in terms of lipid distribution? the inner and outer membranes act seperately but are both hydrophobic
What is the key enzyme for apoptosis? phosphatidylserine
What type and how many AA are needed in an alpha-helix membrane-spanning protein? hyrdophobic AA and approx 20 of them together
Where do the C-terminus and N-terminus ends go in an alpha-helix membrane? there are no rules about them needing to be on inside side or outside side of the bilayer
Are the majority of membrane proteins that span the membrane alpha-helix or beta-barrel? alpha-helices
How are beta-barrel membrane proteins produced? produced as monomers by bacteria
What are the beta-barrels released into environment as? exotoxins
The beta-barrel conformation spanning a membrane needs how many AA? 7-9 AA
What are barrels made up of? 20 beta-zigzag backbones
What types of R-groups do Beta-barrels have? mix of hydrophobic and hydrophilic
What does alpha-hemolysine do? toxin makes holes in cytoplasmic membrane of RBCs monocytes
What is alpha-hemolysine produced by? gram-positve staphylococcus aurens
Which beta-barrel membrane proteins are in outer membrane of gram negative bacteria? "porins"--FepA, OmpLA, Maktoporin, TolC
Membrane fusion includes...? budding of glogi vesicles, exocytosis, endocytosis, viral infection, fusion of egg+sperm, cell division
Only plants can do this type of membrane fusion? fusion/formation of vacuole(s)
What gradients are at work if a solute is at equilibrium? concentration gradient and charge gradient to reach no net flux of solute
The solute needs what type of membrane to reach what type of potential? semipermeable membrane to reach membrane potential
What are the classes of transport systems? uniport or co-transport
Uniport means? one substance enters the cell
Co-transport is made up by...? symport and antiport
What is a symport? two substances enter the cell
What is antiport? one substance comes in while one substance leaves
What is the point of active transport? to use energy to transport substances against the concentration gradient
Primary active transport? goes against law of thermal dynamics by going against electrochemical gradient...needs energy (ATP) to go High inside-low outside
Secondary active transport? against electrochemical gradient, driven by ion moving down its gradient. as ion goes in from high to low the substance come out from high to low
Facilitated diffusion? down electrochemical gradient and substrate follows gradient from high outside-low inside
Simple diffusion? no transport w/ nonpolar compounds only (gases O2, CO2, CO, N) down concentration gradient
Ion channel? down electrochemical gradient: may be gated by a ligand or ion
Ionophore-mediated ion transport? down electrochemical gradient w/in a capsule
Passive transport? no energy needed for substance to go with concentration gradient
What is GLUT 1 and its function? membrane transport protein D-glucose for facilitated diffusion and passive transport
What does a chloride-bicarbonate exchanger consist of + function? the exchange of CO2 in respiring tissues and in lungs. Simple diffusion b/c of gas CO2, antiport b/c one goes in and one goes out preventing formation of electrochemical gradient
Membrane Transport Protein in Bacteria? symport for secondary active transport of lactose as low lactose comes in to high and high H+ comes in to low H+, facilitated diffusion gelps H+ back out to high H+, primary active transport of H+ in proton pump using ATP(feul to CO2 against gradient)
The transport system(s) in sodium potassium pump?=antiport, primary active transport (needs ATP), Na+ and K+ are the electrochemical gradient in nerve cells. K+ high inside and Na+ high outside. 3 Na+ out for every 2 K+ in. antiport, primary active transport (needs ATP)
What are the electrochemical gradients in nerve cells? Na+ and K+
which substance is high inside and low outside with Na+/K+ pump? K+ high inside and Na+ is high outside
What is the ratio of Na+/K+ in the pump? 3 Na+ out for every 2 K+ in
metabolism? sum of all BIOCHEMICAL rxn's in an organism
catabolism? sum of all DEGRADATIVE rxns, yields ATP
anabolism? sum of all BIOSYNTHETIC rxns, requires ATP
Cellular respiration gives off what? ATP
Is cellular respiration aerobic or anaerobic? aerobic
What happens to C and O when it goes from photosynthesis to cellular respiration? C is reduced to an organic compound and O is oxidized to O2
What does photosynthesis require? sunlight
What happens to C and O when cellular respiration goes to photosynthesis? O is reduced to H2O and C is oxidized to CO2
What takes away energy in this cycle? when C is oxidized to Co2
What is the equation conversion for cellular respiration to photosynthesis? "glucose" C6H12O + 6 O2-->6 CO2 + 6 H2O
High potential energy includes what side of the equation? C6H12O + 6O2
Equation for respiring tissue? glucose-->CO2 + H2O --(carbonic anhydrase)-->HCO3- + H+ +Cl-
Equation for lungs? HCO3- + H+ + Cl- --(carbonic anhydrase)-->Co2 + H2O-->glucose
link between oxidation and reduction? universal electron carriers/redox partner is NADH & FADH2. they take the H from other things
CoA function? means co-enzyme A which attaches to biomolecule to make the biomolecule more reactive
what forms when glucose id broken down? CO2
what is the universal energy carrier? ATP
C-C-C:2 electrons removed it is a___? 3 electrons are removed it is a___? 4 electrons removed it is a ___? -ketone/aldehyde -carbonyl -CO2
cellular respirations goal of its first two steps? form Co2 from breakdown of glucose with steps of glycolysis and acetyl-CoA fro pyruvate
Cellular respiration: Stage 1? "Acetly-CoA production" is breaking down nutrients to C2-level (CH3-C=O-S-CoA)
Cellular respiration: Stage 2? "Acetyl-CoA oxidation" is complete oxidation of carbon, NAD+ & FAD become reduced-->NADH & FADH2
Cellular respiration: Stage 3? "Electron transfer and oxidative phosphorylation" is NADH&FADH2 are oxidized, O2 is reduced, redox rxn yield energy in form of ATP
What occurs in the Preparatory phase of glycolysis? in cytoplasm, phosphate is attached to glucose (C6) and its conversion to 2 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (C3). investment of energy is 2 glucose
what occurs in the payoff phase of glycoysis? in cytoplasm, oxidative conversion of 2 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 2 pyruvate (C3) with formation of 2 NADH and 4 ATP.
Net energy gain for glycolysis stage? 2 ATP per glucose
What does a kinase enzyme do? transfer phosphate grp from one organic molecule to another (typically involving ATP) can be a donor or recipient
waht class is kinases in? Class 2 "transferases" grp transer rxn
what does an isomerase, mutase do? create isomers or more functional grps within a molecules
What class is an isomerase, mutase in? Class 5 "isomerases" transfer of grp with/in molecules to yields isomeric form
What does a dehydrogenase do? redox rxn (w/ involvement of universal e- carriers)
what class is a dehydrogenase? class 1 "oxidoreductase transfer e-
what does an aldolase do? breaks covalent bonds w/in organic cmpds
what class is an aldolase? class 4 "lyases add grps to double bond or formation of double bonds by removal of groups (not oxidation or condensation)
What doea an enolase do? remove or add H2O to convert C-OH into -C=C- or vice versa
What class is enolase? class 4 "lyases" add grp to double bond or formation of double bonds by removing grps (not condensation or oxidation)
enzymes do what? catalyze cmpds or rxns
What does the inner membrane of a mitochondria contain? complexes I-IV, ATP synthase
what does the matrix of mitochondria contain? pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, citric acid cycle enzymes
rxn of Pyruvate to Acetyl-CoAt? per glucose: 2 pyruvate (C3) --(2 NAD+) (2 CoA-SH) (give 2 NADH)-->2 CO2 (C1) + 2 Acetyl-CoA (C2)
PDH complex needs what? 4 B vitamins so the person can make enough energy and not feel tired
The five coenzymes of PDH complex? coenzyme A: pantothenic acid (B5) NAD+: Niacin (B3) FAD: Riboflavin (B2) TPP (thiamine pyrophosphate): B1 Lipoate (lipoyllysine)
The -SH end of CoA forms? forms a thioester w/ carboxy grps
how many steps in the CAC or KREB cycle? 8
how many exzymes are required for the CAC or KREB cycle? 8
how many cycles does a glucose go around? 2 times for every individual glucose
special alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase? similar in structure to PDH complex. 3 enzyme present in mulitple copies. 5 coenzymes, 4 derived from B vitamins
special enzyme Succinate DH? protein associated with membrane by being attached to inside of mitochondria & complex II of electron transport chain
Respiratory chain consists of? electron transport chain + ATP synthesis
Oxidative Phosphorylation goals? produce ATP, form H2O by reducing O2, respiratory chain
in respiratory chain, complex I? NADH DH, Fe2+required
in respiratory chain, complex II? succinate DH, Fe2+ required, FAD prosthetic grp
in respiratory chain, complex III? ubiqinone-ctochrom C, has heme and requires Fe2+
in respiratory chain, complex IV? cytochrome oxidase, contains a heme and dependent on Cu2+ and Fe2+
pH in the matrix of oxidative phosphorylation? high in matrix
extracellular enzymes in digestive tract? lactose, trehalase, sucrose, glycogen
lactose intolerance brings about what symptoms? How? diarrhea, abdominal cramping by increasing osmolarity in intestinal tract
fermentation defn? a process that yields energy (2 ATP/glucose) by recycling NADH back to NAD+ and reducing an organic e- acceptor (pyruvate)
pyruvate as terminal electron acceptor carbonyl -->hydroxy grp eith redox rxn in anaerobic skel m
Created by: fun&games