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Nuclear Chemistry

Chemical reactions Atoms are trying to reach a stable electron configuration
Nuclear Chemistry Concerned with reactions that take place in the nucleus to obtain stable nuclear configurations
Radioactivity The emission of particles and/or energy from an unstable nucleus
Radiation The particles and/or energy that are emitted from an unstable nucleus
Alpha radiation Emission of helium nuclei
Alpha particles Contain 2 protons & 2 neutrons (with a charge of +2). The largest of radioactive emissions, penetration can be stopped by paper
Beta radiation A product of the decomposition of a neutron or proton. Composed of high energy, high speed electrons that began as neutrons or protons. - charge (electrons) or + charge (positrons). Stopped by a thin sheet of aluminum foil, lucite, or plastic.
Gamma radiation High-energy electromagnetic radiation, similar to xrays but with more energy. Can go through several feet of concrete or several inches of lead. Lead shielding is required to block gamma rays.
Half-life The amount of time it takes an unstable isotope to decay into a more stable form
An unstable atom decays until _____? A stable nuclear configuration is found usually by emitting radioactive particles
Kinetic energy The energy resulting from the motion of the object. KE =1/2 mv^2 . Mass is kg. Velocity is meters per second
Potential energy The energy the object has because of its position, PE=mgh m= mass of object, g=acceleration caused by gravity, and h=the height at which the object is located above the ground m= kg,g=9.8 m/s ^2, h=meters
Kinetic and potential energy are expressed as ____? joules
joule Newton-meter or a kilogram-meter squared per second per second squared
The law of conservation of energy Energy must be conserved, kinetic and potential energy can be interchanged if we assume that there is no friction or air resistance present
The energy levels or shells in which the electron orbits are labeled ____? They are lettered beginning with k, k=1, l=2, m=3, and ...
The closer the electron shell the stronger _______ The binding energy (how tightly the electron is bound to the nucleus)
Each shell holds a specific number of electrons, how do you find that number? 2n^2, n=the shell number
A stable atom has _____ Equal numbers of protons and electrons
Created by: Beckster89