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Caitlin Chemistry

Exam Study Guide

The indentification of the components and composition of materials. Analytical Chemistry
Research carried out for the sake of gaining knowledge, such as how and why a specific reaction occurs and what the properties of a substance are. Basic Research
A substance that can be broken down into simple stable substances. Each is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemnically bonded. Compound
Properties that depend on the amount of matter that is present. Extensive Properties
Matter in what state has a definite volume but an indefinite state? Liquid
Mixtures that are uniform in composition. Also called solutions Homogeneous
A substance's ability to undergo changes that transform into different substances. Chemical Property
The closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity measured. Accuracy
A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances. Chemical change
A specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation System
The transformation of a substance or substances into one or more new substances Chemical Reaction
States that mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes Law of conservation of mass
Forces that hold nuclear particles together Nuclear Forces
Number of protons of each atom of that element Atomic number
Atoms of the same element that have different masses Isotopes
The sponaneous disintegration of a nucleus into a slightly lighter nucleus, accompanied by emission of particles, electromagnetic radiation, or both. Radioactive Decay
Particles or electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay. Nuclear Radiation
The time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay. Half-Life
The total number of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus of an isotope. Mass Number
The weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occuring isotopes of an element Average Atomic Mass
Two quantities are ? to each other if their product is constant Inversely Proportional
A measurement consists of all the digits known with certainty plus one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain or estimated Significant Figures
Calculated by subtracting the accepted value from the experimental value, dividing the difference by the accepted value, then multiplying by 100. Percentage Error
The closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured Accuracy
The ratio of mass to volume, or mass divided by volume Density
Standards are chosen because they...? are reproducible in another laboratory
The SI base unit for time is the.... Second
A change in the force of Earth's gravity on an object will affect it's...? Weight
A testable statement used for making predictions and carrying out further experiments is a ... Hypothesis
The quantities that must be measured to determine density are... Volume and mass
For electromagnetic Radiation, C (The speed of light) equals..? Frequency times wavelength
The wave model of light did not explain... The photoelectric effect
In SI, the frequency of electromegnetic radiation is measured in... Hertz
For an electron in an atom to change from the ground state to an excited state... Energy must be absorbed
The main energy levels of an atom are indicated by the Principal Quantum Numbers (1st)
How many electrons can occupy the S orbitals at each energy level? Two, if they have opposite spins
The statement that an electron occupies the lowest available energy orbital the Aufbau Principle
A thre-dimensional region around a nucleus where an electron may be found Orbital
The quantum number that indicates the orbital within the sublevel Magnetic Quantum Number (3rd)
The French scientist Louis de Broglie believed Electrons could have a dual wave-particle nature
What are the radioactive elements with atomic numbers from 90 to 103 in the periodic table? The Actinides
Mendeleev attempted to organize the chemical elements based on their Properties
One-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together Atomic Radius
The principle that states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic functions is The Periodic Law
The person whose work led to a periodic table based on increasing atomic number was Moseley
The discovery of the noble gases changed Mendeleev's periodic table by adding a new Group
The most characteristic property of the noble gases is that they Are largely unreactive
The elements that border the zigzag line in the periodic table are Metalloids
The most reactive group of the nonmentals are the Halogens
The group of 14 elements in the sixth period that have 4f orbitals is the Lanthanides
A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together Chemical Bond
A nuetral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is a Molecule
Shows the types and numbers of atoms joined in a single molecule of a molecular compound Molecular formula
Most chemical bonds are Partly ionic and partly covalent
What principle states that atoms tend to form compounds so that each atom can have eight electrons in its outermost energy level? Octet Rule
The chemical formula for water, a covalent compound, is H2O. This formula is an example of...? Molecular formula
The electron-sea model of bonding represents... Metallic Bonding
Malleability and ductility are characteristic of substances with...? Metallic Bonds
A covalent bond results when ______ are shared Electrons
If the atoms that share electrons have an unequal attraction for the electrons, the bond is called... Polar
Created by: CaitlinM