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Chem: Exam 4

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins

study of chemical substances found in living organisms? biochemistry
chemical substances found in living organisms? biochemical substances
molecules of life include:? carbohydrates, lips, proteins, DNA and RNA
carbon with 4 different groups attached? chiral carbon
what reacts to form acetals? aldehydes and alcohols, ketones and alcohols
glucose molecules linked via alpha (1->4) and alpha (1->6) linkages? amylopectin
'animal starch' ; glucose molecules linked via alpha (1->4) and alpha (1->6) linkages glycogen
glucose linked via beta (1->4) linkages cellulose
n-acetyl amino glucose linked via beta (1->4) linkages chitin
an organic molecule that is insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents ; waxy, greasy, oily lipid
straight-chain carboxylic acid with an even number of carbon atoms ; can be saturated or unsaturated fatty acid
one c=c bond monounsaturated
more than one c=c bond polyunsaturated
needed by the body but not synthesized within the body essential fatty acid
essential fatty acids that are used to produce substances that regulate blood clotting, immune response, and blood pressure linoleic acid and linolenic acid
triacylglycerol that is solid at room temperature fat
triacyglycerol that is liquid at room temperature oil
hydrogenation of fats or oils results in what? lowers degree of saturation --> increases MP
what can partial hydrogenation lead to? trans fats
unsaturated fatty acids are _____ in air to form short chain _______ __ oxidized ; carboxylic acids
compound containing four fused rings steroid
component of cell membranes, precursors for bile salts, vitamin d, the adrenocorticoid hormones, and many sex hormones steroids
important for lipid digestion in the instestines steroids
amino acids that cannot easily be synthesized within the body but must be obtained in the diet essential amino acids
what is chiral in all amino acids, except glycine alpha-carbon
basic? amine
acidic? carboxyl
the amine is positively charged while the carboxylate is negatively charged when the pH is where? 7
short chains of amino acids - shorter than 50 peptides
long chains of amino acids - longer than 50 proteins
order in which amino acids are linked together primary structure of proteins
attractive forces between amino acids accounts for? 3D shape of protein
breaking the amide bond into smaller peptides or amino acids hydrolysis
loss of native state, often associated with loss of protein activity denaturation
biological catalysts ; most are proteins enzymes
properties of enzymatic reactions - increase reaction rates up to 10000000 fold
reactant molecule substrate
uniquely shaped surface where substrate binds active site
substrate does not fit into active site, protein conforms to shape of substrate induced-fit model
non-protein component of enzyme cofactor
enzyme that cleaves an HIV polyprotein to form reverse transcriptase, integrase, etc. HIV protease
inhibits HIV protease enzyme by binding the active site ; used to treat AIDS protease inhibitor
Created by: lc_fabian