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Chem Final Terms

Chemistry Terminology

electricity process of pushing electrons through a circuit
electrochemistry study of spontaneous chemical reactions to produce electricity and the use of electricity to drive nonspontaneous reactions
electrochemical cell device in which an electric current is either produced by a spontaneous chemical reaction or used to bring about a nonspontaneous reaction
electrolytic cell an electrochemical cell where electrolysis occurs (current is used to drive nonspontaneous reaction)
chemical kinetics study of rates of chemical reactions
rate of reaction a positive quantity that tells us how the concentrations of a reactant or product changes with time
rate law expression for reaction rate in terms of concentrations of a species at any instant
reaction mechanism description of a path, or a sequence of steps, by which a reaction might occur at the molecular level
kinetic energy at higher temperatures there are more molecules with high kinetic energy
nuclear chemistry changes that occur with the nucleus
nuclear fission fragmentation of large nuclei into smaller nuclei
nuclear fusion merging of small nuclei into larger ones
nuclear decay spontaneous particle break up due to cramped space of protons in an atom. The repulsion between protons overcomes the force holding the nucleus together
isomers different compounds that have the same molecular formula
stereoisomer atoms have same partners but arranged differently in space
structural isomer atoms connected to different partners
ionization isomer ligand and anion in one isomer switch positions to form other isomer
hydrate isomer ionization isomer where water is one of the ligands whose position is different in different isomers
linkage isomer ligands in complex have more than one atom that can bond to the central metal ion; different atoms in isomer is actually bonded to central metal ion
coordination isomer both anion and cation are complexes and ligand in anionic complex in one isomer exchange with a ligand in the cationic complex
geometrical isomer atoms bonded to same neighbors but with different locations relative to each other
optical isomer nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other
chiral complex one that is not identical iwth its mirror image
achiral complex one that is superimposable on its mirror image (not optical isomers)
Created by: nkotani