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Science-10 Chemistry

TermDefinition
Chemistry The study of matter, its properties and the changes it goes through.
Matter Anything that has mass and volume that takes up space is made of matter.
Mixture Matter that can be physically separated and that does not have a definite composition
Pure substance Matter that has a definite composition.
Heterogenous mixture Different components in the mixture are visible and variable.
Homogenous mixture Different components in the mixture are not visible and are constant
Element Cannot be chemically broken down.
Compound Can be chemically broken down
Leg of definite proportions Molecules always combine in the same way (every carbon dioxide molecule is 1 carbon and 2 oxygen).
Dalton model of the atom -atoms are the smallest particles - al atoms of the same element are identical -atoms of different substances are different
Thomson model of the molecule -there are subatomic particles called electrons -um pudding model -cereal!!
Rutherford model of the atom -gold foil experiment - planetary model
Bohr model of the atom -electron energy models -what we use today
Atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus. Identifies the element. (Top left)
Atomic mass The number of protons and the number of neutrons. (Top right)
Isotopes When the same element has a different amount of neutrons
Nuclear notation Tells us information about the nucleus/nucleons
Periodic table Organizes about 118 elements based on their characteristics. Made by Dmitri Medeleev
Metal -shiny - malleable - strong conductor of electricity and heat -solid(except mercury) -found to the left of the staircase
Non- metal -dull - brittle -weak conductor of heat and electricity - solid, liquid, or gas -found to the right of the stair case
Metalloids -semiconductors if electricity -lustrous -brittle -found along the stair case
Energy level rules Level and #E 1 - 2 2 - 8 3 - 8 4 - 18 5 - 18
Valence electron The electrons in he outermost energy level
Lewis dot diagram Includes only the valence electrons Draw dots clockwise
Period The horizontal rows- number of the period = number of energy levels
Chemical reaction Occur because atoms want to become more stable
Ion A charged atom
Anion A negatively charged atom
Cation A positively charged atom
Naming metal ions Add the word ion
Naming non metal ions Change the ending to “ide” and add the word ion.
Chemical bond A force of attraction between atoms that keeps them together
Metallic bonds -found in metals -atoms share electrons in outer shells - this holds metal atoms together very strongly
Ionic bonds -between metals and non metals -the transfer of electrons from on atom to another -the (+) and (-) ions attract each other
Crystal lattice Pattern that is a result of ionic compounds
Covalent bonds -found in non metals - atoms sharing valence electrons
Created by: Layspotatochips