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words to know

FAPE Free Appropriate Public EducationSped. and services provided free, under public supervision,meet standards of State ed. agency, and inc. appr. pre., elem., or sec. school. conformity IEP. ages 3-21, inc. children w/ dis. been suspended or expelled.
LRE The Least Restrictive Environment- the educational setting where a child who has disabilities can receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE) designed to meet his or her education needs while being educated with peers without disabilities
IEP A written plan and legal document that states a child's present level of functioning;special services; annual goals; short-term objectives; services provided; and the method of evaluation. 3-21 years of age who are eligible for special education
EHA Education for All Handicapped Children Act, public law 94-142 1975. 1st compulsory special education law for free, approp. ed. for sped. 3-21 years old
Articulation speech sounds. For instance, many young children sound like they are making a "w" sound for an "r" sound (e.g., "wabbit" for "rabbit") or may leave sounds out of words, such as "nana" for "banana."
Aspergers Syndrome An autism related developmental disorder characterised by sustained impairment in social interaction and nonverbal communication and by restricted, repetitive, pedantic and stereotyped activities, interests, speech and routines.
Autism Bio-neurological dis. is observable in early childhood with symp. of abnormal self-absorption,lack of response to others and lmtd ability to comm. and socialize. symp. incl. avoiding eye contact, sensory integration dysf., restricted, repetitive behavior
BD Behavior disorder. mental health problems that lead to disruptive behavior, emotional and social problems. like adhd
BIP behavior intervention plan.if child's behavior disrupts the classroom, communication, vision, hearing, behavior and/or mobility effect academic achievement. in iep to target behaviors
COTA certified occupational therapy assistant provide rehabilitative services to persons with mental, physical, emotional, or developmental impairments.
CP cerebral palsy. chronic conditions affecting body movement and muscle coordination. caused by damage to areas of the brain, usually during fetal development; before, during, or shortly after birth; or during infancy.disrupts brain ability to control move.
DD Developmental disabilities are a diverse group of severe chronic conditions due to mental and/or physical imp. People with DD have prob. w/ language, mobility, learning, self-help, and independent living. DD begin during devel up to 22 years; lasts life.
Deaf/Blind DD's. 90db or greater hear loss. eyesight cannot be corrected to a "normal" level.
ED emotionally disturbed. 1 or more of charac. over long time:inability to build satis. interpersonal relat.; inappr. types of behavior under normal circ.; depr.; or a tendency to develop fears ass. with personal problems. Includes schizophrenic or autistic
Expressive Language The process of formulating and sending a message is called expressive language. One way to express language is through speech. Other ways are through sign language, pointing to words and pictures on a communication board, or formulating written messages o
FBA functional behavior assessment.Schools are required by law to use FBA when dealing with challenging behavior in students with special needs.und. why child behaves the way he or she does is the first, best step to developing strategies to stop the behavior
HH hard of hearing. A hearing impairment is a full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds
Manifestation Determination by the IEP team (along with other necessary qualified personnel) to investigate whether there is a relationship between the student's action(s) of concern and his/her disability. is it reflection or result of disability.
OHI OT Other Health impaired. Occupation therapy.a disability that may be characterized by limited strength, vitality or alertness, due to chronic or acute health problems, such as a heart condition that affects education.
PDD pervasive developmental disorder. usually found in the early years of a child's life. Children with PDD have difficulty in areas of development or use of functional skills such as language, communication, social skills, and motor behaviors.
PT physical therapy. School physical therapy focuses on a child's ability to move as independently as possible in the school environment
Receptive Language the comprehension of language - listening and understanding what is communicated. understands literal and figurative lang.
SED seriously emotionally disturber. any of these: inability to learn, make friends, inapp. behav., depressed, fears, schizophrenic, etc.
SL Service learning is a method of teaching, learning and reflecting that combines academic classroom curriculum with meaningful service, frequently youth service, throughout the community.
LD learning disability. a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors
SLP Speech-language pathology is the study of disorders that affect a person's speech, language, cognition, voice, swallowing (dysphagia) and sensory awareness.
TBI traumatic brain injury. outside blow to head. causes a host of physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral effects, and outcome can range from complete recovery to permanent disability or death
Tourettes Syndrome an inherited neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of multiple physical (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic
Intellectual disabilities characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors with onset before the age of 18
People first language when identifying a person with an impairment, the person's name or pronoun should come first, and descriptions of the impairment/disability should be used so that the impairment is identified, but is not modifying the person.
Adaptive skills ability to apply skills learned in school to naturally occuring activites in daily life
Incidence relative frequency of occurrence of something. a measure of the risk of developing some new condition within a specified period of time
Prevalence the ratio (for a given time period) of the number of occurrences of a disease or event to the number of units at risk in the population
Multidisciplinary the involvement of two or more disciplines or professions in the provision of integrated and coordinated services including evaluation and assessment activities, and the development of the IFSP
Interdisciplinary two or more specialists having different disciplinary backgrounds working jointly and continuously to interlink their analyses
Transdiciplinary emphasizes role of primary therapist acts as contact person for service provisions so # of prof. w/direct child contact is minimal
AAMR american association of mental retardation. international association that promotes progressive policies, sound research, effective practices, and universal human rights for people with intel. disability
MR Mental retardation is a generalized disorder, characterized by subaverage cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors with onset before the age of 18
DD Developmental disability is a term used to describe life-long disabilities attributable to mental and/or physical or combination of mental and physical impairments, manifested prior to age 18
Chromosomal aberrations any change in the normal structure or number of chromosomes; often results in physical or mental abnormalities
Trisomy an extra chromosome occurs in group G. cause of Down Syndrome. attributed to mother's age
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal alcohol syndrome, known as FAS, is a disorder characterized by growth retardation, facial abnormalities, and central nervous system dysfunction (CNS). FAS is caused by a woman's use of alcohol during pregnancy
Fetal Alcohol Affect Moderate drinking of alcohol (1-2 drinks daily) during pregnancy can cause FAE in the baby, numerous developmental and behavioral problems. symptoms subtle early on and apparent when the child is older and has trouble with school and socialization
Neurological system the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).
Hydrocephalus enlargement of the head due to the increased accumulation of Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. When children are not treated promptly, they will have below normal intelligence, physical disabilities and a variety of other medical problems
Information processing theories like the computer, the human mind is a system that processes information through the application of logical rules and strategies.
Learning set ability to learn how to learn
Generalization an idea or statement that emphasizes the general characteristics rather than the specific details of a subject
Functional reading teaching key sight word vocabulary that relates to tasks of daily living such as cooking, following a work schedule or grocery shopping
Learned helplessness A tendency to be a passive learner who depends on others for decisions and guidance
Down syndrome A disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21 and characterized by mental retardation and distinguishing physical features
Continuum of Placements the varied instructional arrangements and settings provided by districts to meet the needs of children with disabilities based on the children’s individual education programs (IEP).
Vocation Rehabilitation Act 1973 Title V, was put in place to correct the problem of discrimination against people with disabilities in the U.S. requires private employers to hire dis. and give accomodations
Section 504 provided opportunities for children and adults with disabilities in education, employment and various other settings. It allows for reasonable accommodations such as special study area and assistance as necessary for each studen
Community Based Education learners are encouraged to actively apply concepts and information, skills or attitudes to local situations.
Community Referenced Employment Preparation focuses on activities to be accomplished in the community work setting instead of development of skills in classroom
Self Determination The ability or right to make your own decisions without interference from others
Accomodation These include techniques and materials that make learning easier without changing the basic curriculum.
Auditory and visual processing disorders the processes of recognizing and interpreting information taken in through the senses of sight and sound.
Autism developmental disorder that appears in the first 3 yearsof life, and affects the brain's normal development of social andcommunication skills
Inherited developmental disability small mutations, known as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can be passed through multiple generations
Intelligence tests Tests that measure aptitude or intellectual capacities (Examples: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III-R) and Stanford-Binet (SB:IV).
Mentally processing refers to the aspects of intellect and consciousness manifested as combinations of thought, perception, memory, emotion, will and imagination
Cognitive Behavior Modification focuses on identifying dysfunctional self-talk in order to change unwanted behaviors. 1.self observation. 2.self talk. 3.learn new skills
Contingency management An operant-conditioning technique in which the consequences of a response are manipulated in order to change the frequency of that response.
Developmentally delayed infants and toddlers who have not achieved skills and abilities which are expected to be mastered by children of the same age. Delays can be in any areas: physical, social, emotional, intellectual, speech and language and/or adaptive development
Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) Reinforcement is delivered when the target behavior is not displayed for a specified period of time; any behavior other than the target behavior is specifically reinforced.
Discrepancy model measure of how far a child has fallen behind peers, and that if the child is not so bright, then logically he should be falling behind his peers. learning disabled due to a discrepancy between scores on measures of intelligence and achievement
Dysacusis difficulty in processing details of sound due to distortion in frequency or intensity, but not primarily a loss of the ability to perceive sound
Dyscalculia specific learning disability involving innate difficulty in learning or comprehending mathematics
Dysgraphia deficiency in the ability to write by hand, regardless of the ability to read, not a result of intellectual impairment.
Dyskinesia movement disorder which consists of effects including diminished voluntary movements[1] and the presence of involuntary movements, similar to tics or chorea. Dyskinesia is a symptom of several medical disorders
Dyslexia learning disorder that manifests itself as a difficulty with reading and spelling, not from poor vision or teaching
Dyslogia difficulty in expressing ideas through speech caused by impairment of the power of reasoning (as in certain psychoses)
Dysnomia difficulty or inability to retrieve the correct word from memory when it is needed. Dysnomia can affect speech skills, writing abilities, or both
Dysphagia symptom of difficulty in swallowing. Although classified under "symptoms and signs" in ICD-10, the term is sometimes used as a condition in its own right. Sufferers are sometimes unaware of their dysphagia
Dysrhythmia disturbance in the normal pattern of brain waves as recorded in encephalography (EEG). Dysrhythmias of different kinds may show up during migraine, sleep, overexcitement, etc. or abnormal heart beat
Extinction the lowering of the probability of a response when a characteristic reinforcing stimulus is no longer presented
Hyperlexia difficulties with comprehension of printed material beyond or even at the single-word level. Many hyperlexics also have trouble understanding speech.[1] Most or perhaps all children with hyperlexia also lie on the autism spectrum.
Modifications changes in lesson plan to help the disabled child. example: extended test taking time
Negative reinforcement Encouraging a behavior by the removal of an aversive consequence (eg, not losing recess if classwork is completed).
Neurological impairments disorders that primarily relate to the central nervous system comprised of the brain and spinal cord.cerebral palsy, epilepsy, brain injury, multiple sclerosis, Tourette’s
Nonverbal Learning Disorder characterized by a significant discrepancy between high verbal and lower performance scores on an IQ test, with deficits in motor, visual-spatial, and social skills.perception, coordination, socialisation, humor,
Operant conditioning use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior
PBS Positive behavior support, an evidence-based approach to reducing problem behavior and increasing prosocial behavior
Positive reinforcement an increase in the future frequency of a behavior due to the addition of a stimulus immediately following a response. giving a dog a treat
Psychometry the measuring of the time taken by mental processes and sensations
Punishment any change in a human or animal's surroundings that occurs after a given behavior or response which reduces the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future
RtI Response to Intervention (RTI). Use of research-based instruction and interventions to students who are at risk and who are suspected of having specific learning disabilities.
Satiation effectiveness of a consequence will be reduced if the individual's "appetite" for that source of stimulation has been satisfied. Inversely, the effectiveness of a consequence will increase as the individual becomes deprived of that stimulus.
Socially maladjusted
Collaboration act of working jointly
Comprehensive Assessment
Congenital Disabilities a disability a person was born with
Cooperative Teaching a service delivery model in which two (or more) educators or other certified staff, contract to share instructional responsibility
Criterion-Referenced Test An assessment that measures a student’s performance according to specified standards or criteria rather than in comparison to the performances of other test takers.
Cultural and Linguistic Bias
Evaluation systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of something or someone using criteria against a set of standards.
Feedback response to an inquiry or experiment
Formative Evaluation a type of evaluation which has the purpose of improving programs
IEP/IFSP Teams IFSP team consists of the parents, service coordinator and other related service providers,IEP team consists of parents, the student, regular education teachers, special education teacher, school district rep., and other related service providers
Intelligence Quotient a measure of a person's intelligence as indicated by an intelligence test; the ratio of a person's mental age to their chronological age
Mediation a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) or "appropriate dispute resolution", aims to assist two (or more) disputants in reaching an agreement.
Norm-Referenced Test a type of test, assessment, or evaluation which yields an estimate of the position of the tested individual in a predefined population, with respect to the trait being measured
Protection in Evaluation Procedures …to protect students…ensure that procedures are fair,equitable and nondiscriminatory
School-wide Student-Study Team school-wide early identification and intervention process to identify student's strengths and weaknesses and create improvement plan
Screening is the investigation of a great number of something (for instance, people) looking for those with a particular problem or feature
WISC-IV Identifies key cognitive strengths and weaknesses related to learning disabilities, executive function, attention disorders, TBI, intellectual disability, and giftedness.
ADA the Americans with Disabilities Act-1990 protects diabled with obligations on private sector employers, public services, accomodations and transportation to prevent discrimination. those not covered by sec. 504 b/c don't collect fed. funds
FERPA Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 defines who may and may not see student records.
IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. ensures services and education to children with disabilities
IEE Independent Education Evaluation. Assessment of your child’s needs for a IEP by another professional not employed by the same school district that formed the original evaluation.
IFSP Individualized Family Service Plan is a written plan for the child's and family's services in the Early Intervention Program that the family develops with a team of qualified personnel and Early Intervention Official
IQ a measure of a person's intelligence as indicated by an intelligence test; the ratio of a person's mental age to their chronological age (multiplied by 100))
LEA a public board of education or other public authority within a State which maintains administrative control of public elementary or secondary schools in a city, county, township, school district, or other political subdivision of a state
OSEP Office of Special Education Programs dedicated to improving results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities, ages birth through 21, by providing leadership and financial support to assist states and, through them, local school districts.
OSERS Office of Special Education improving results for people with disabilities of all ages. OSERS supports parents, individuals, school districts and states in three main areas in three offices: special education (OSEP), vocational rehabilitation (RSA) and research (NIDRR).
PL 94-142 Education of All Handicapped Children Act. This was the original federal law establishing the rights of children with disabilities to receive a free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive setting
Prior Written Notice the school needs to provide this before changing the student's iep
Procedural safeguards Recourse for parents who are in disagreement with decisions made at the local level (eg, mediation, due process hearing, complaints, etc
SEA state education agency. a formal governmental label for the state-level government agencies within each U.S. state responsible for providing information, resources, and technical assistance on educational matters to schools and residents
Section 504 of the Vocational Rehab Act Section 504 is a federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of documented disability, history of a disability, or the appearance of having a disability
SLD Specific Learning Disability. in understanding language, spoken or written, that may be an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do math. calc., incl perceptual dis., brain injury,, dyslexia and develop. aphasia
Aim line marks the path a teacher will need to take in order to move a student from her current, baseline level of performance, to the performance criterion described in a behavioral objective, within a designated time period
Alternative teaching 1 teacher manages major group of children while other has small group pulled aside
Collaboration working together
Differentiated instruction involves providing students with different avenues to acquiring content; to processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and to developing teaching materials so that all students within a clsrm can learn effectively, regardless of diff in ability
Direct instruction the explicit teaching of a skill-set using lectures or demonstrations of the material, rather than exploratory models such as inquiry-based learning.
Instructional scaffolding provision of sufficient support to promote learning when concepts and skills are being first introduced to students. supports gradually removed as students learn it
One teach-one drift one teacher intructs the class while the other intermingles among students giving specialized assistance
One teach-one observe one teacher primarily manages classroom while the other observes and collects data, student characteristics, etc.
Parallel teaching class is divided in half, each teacher taking similar number of students to teach same information but in different manner
Precision teaching type of instruction that directly measures student performance on a daily basis. students given probes each day to measure learning
Station teaching both teachers deliver instruction in teaching stations.students can work independently at 3rd station or with volunteer, student, or paraprof.
Task analysis process of breaking a learning task down into its component parts and teaching each part as a distinct skill
Team teaching two teachers actively involved in managing instruction with whole class. both responsible for teaching subject content areas
Negative reinforcement increasing probability of behavior by removing an unpleasant consequence like excusing student from quiz after completing 5 assignments in a row
Punishment presenting consequence that decreases probability of behavior in future
Contingency eventuality: a possible event or occurrence or result
Token economy a form of behavior therapy that has been used in some mental institutions; patients are rewarded with tokens for appropriate behavior and the tokens may be cashed in for valued rewards
Social competence competencies and skills related to interaction, e. g. social judgment, empathy, and the repertoire of communicative behavior
Emotional intelligence describes the ability, capacity, skill or (in the case of the trait EI model) a self-perceived ability, to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups
With-it-ness the ability to at all times be perceptually and cognitively aware of what is occurring in one's classroom.
Intrinsic motivation the learner’s drive comes from within
Extrinsic motivation Motivation that is imposed on the learner from the outside through external rewards and punishments
FBA functional behavior assessment A process, of identifying problem behaviors and why a student engages in behaviors that impede with learning, and understanding the behavior in the context in which it is observed, and how the behavior relates to the envir
Externalizing an unconscious defense mechanism, where an individual "projects" his own internal characteristics onto the outside world, particularly onto other people: fighting, lying, disrupting, etc
Internalizing anxiety, worry, crying, shy, timid, bashful
Seductive objects valuables or toys that students want to handle, steal, or grab. removing these relieves pressure of burgeoning self-control system
Signal interference silent gestures by the teacher to quiet a class like eye contact, snapping fingers, frown, etc without disturbing the class
Restructuring changing a lesson that is floundering.
Administrative Law Judge an official who presides at an administrative trial-type hearing to resolve a dispute between a government agency and someone affected by a decision of that agency.
Annual review idea requires school board officials to review iep annually and reevaluation every three years
Appeal in the case of manifest determination , an expedited hearing must be held within 20 days and decision within 10 days of hearing
Case law results from court opinions; also referred as common law
CFR Code of Federal Regulations. repository regulations promulgated by various federal agencies to implement laws passed by congress
Compensatory damages a judicial award that is intended to compensate a plaintiff for an actual loss
Evaluation team group of individuals who perform assessments on the student to determine whether child has disability and wat sped services required
Expulsion long-term exclusion from school, generally for disciplinarry purposes. exclusion more than 10 days
Holding part of court's decision that applies the law to the facts of the case
Independent hearing officer impartial third party decision maker who conducts an administrative hearing and renders a decision on merits of dispute
Injunction equitable remedy forbidding a party from taking contemplated action, restraining party from continuing action or requiring party to take action
In loco parentis PL a term used in situations where school officials act in place of child's parents
Reevalutaion complete reassessment of student
Special Education State Level Review Officer impartial person responsible for reviewing decisions of independent hearing officer from adminstrative due process proceeding under idea
Suspension short-term exclusion of student from school, less than 10 days for disciplinary purposes
Tort a civil wrong, other than breach of contract, committed against someone's person or property
USC United States Code. the official compilation of statutes enacted by congress
Denial parents deny degree of disability or differences exist
Blame parents blame others for disability like physicians
Fear parents anxiety turns into fear with unknowns of child's disabilty
Rejection underexpectations of achievement, setting unrealistic goal, escape, reaction formation
Self-fulfilling prophecy child becomes aware of parental attitude of underexpectation and grows self-worthlessness and acts accordingly
Respite care provision of short-term relief (respite) from the tasks associated with caregiving
ARC organization that works on behalf of people with intellectual disabilities and their families, advocating rights of people w/disabilities at all levels of govt.
AAMR promotes policies, practices, research and human rights for people with intell. disab.
Social capital social networks and adult relationships that nurture children during their development
NICHCY National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities provides ed. info and technical assistance to parents, advocates,and professionals
CHIP Children's Health Insurance Program. eligible working families are those whose income is too high to qualify for Medicaid but too low to afford private coverage
WIC Special Food Supplemental program for Woman, Infants, adn Children fed. grant program which authorizes specific amount of funds each year
screening determine if child has disabilities to refer for more testing
child find directs parents to screening services in community open to infants, toddlers, etc. for free
student assistance team sat. gen ed teachers and sped teachers enabled to help each other with recommendation to inst. and assessment
referral the interventions tried and the student responses
determining eligibility team recommends this. examine assessment info to make determination
program planning determine current level of functioning and plan instructional program
monitoring individual progress determine if student is making progress and if to modify instruction if no progress
program evaluation assess progress and overall quality of school program
assisstive technology any item, equipment, or system to increase maintain or improve functional capability of students
assistive technology service assists students in selecting, acquiring and using ass. tech. devices
assessment strategies individualized activities or routines the teacher follows
universal design designing products usable by people with widest possible range of functional capabilities
reliability consistency or stability of test performance
standard eror of measurement the amount of error with test scores, items, samples and test times
correlation extent to which 2 or more scores vary together
cut score prespecified scores determine how to select students
consequential validity extent to which assess. instrument promtes intended consequences
correlation coefficient correlation between tests, items, scoring procedure, observation, behavior rating
item response theory technical information about tests. determines how well instrument differentiates between individuals
test-retest reliability administering same test to same student twice and correlatingscores to get reliability coefficient
validity most important consideration when developing evaluating and interpreting tests
language dominance individuals preferred language
alternate form reliability 2 forms of test with same knowledge to get equivalent form reliability
content vailidity measures extent which test items reflect content domain of test
language proficiency level of expertise in a language
split-half reliability administering a test to group of students, dividing test items in 1/2 and correlating scores on the 2 tests
internal consistency reliability estimate of interrelatedness of response to test items
criterion-related validity extent to which scores from 1 test relate to scores on another test
interscorer/interrater/interobserver reliability measure of extent to which 2 or more scores, observers, or raters agree on how to score a test
predictive vailidity standard for forcasting student performance or behavior from test score
standardized sample subgroup of large group that represent large group
population larger group from which sample of individuals is selected and to which individual comparisons are made
evaluation process of establishing a value judgement based on collection of actual data
stakeholders individuals interested in results of evaluation-teachers, therapists, parents, etc.f
internal evaluator a teacher or administrator trained in research design, measurement and evaluation
external evaluator hired specifically for purpose of completing evaluation
formative evaluation an evaluation ongoing during period of program implementation-can make adjustment b4 end of program
summative evaluation evaluation done at end of program
quantitative data info that can be assigned a number or score-survey and rating scales
qualitative data descriptive rather than numeric-interview, discussion, observation written answers, etc.
focus groups informal way of collecting info-group of people provide feedback on program
family-centered philosphy requires that teachers attempt to create opportunity for family to acquire knowledge necessary to strengthen functioning of family
early childhood team parents, family service coordinator representatives of various disciplines who assess, design, implement, monitor, evaluate early intervention services
developmental domains physical, cognitive, communication, social-emotional, adaptive development
young children birth through 8
false negative a child w/disability passes screening b/c of sensitivity of screening instrument, lack of training of examinor
false positive a child w/o disability is sent for further testing
person-centered planning student engages w/parents or educators during tests. planning &service delivery process encourages student to take active role in transition
transition change in status from behaving as student to adult in community
curriculum-based vocational assessment (cbva) plans and develops vocational education opportunities for student w/disability
transition services coordinated set of activities for student with outcome-oriented process that promotes change from school to adulthood
self-determination the students hopes and dreams influence type of tests that transition team implements
concurrent validity the extent which results of 2 different tests administered at same time correlate with each other
construct validity extent which a test measures a particular trait, construct or psychological characteristic like achievement and cognitive ability
out-of-level using lower grade level test for higher grade level student
standardized test a test with test manual prescibes administration, scoring and interpretation procedure for strict following
standardization sample subgroup of large group that is representative of the large group
nominal scale represents lowest level of measurement. a naming scale. each value is a name not with innate value like hair color or jersy number
ordinal scale orders items in a scale or continuum like ordering students according to class rank
interval scale order items on scale with distance between items equal like farenheit scale
ratio scale all characteristics or ordinal and interval scale but also has absolute zero like heigh and weight scale
frequency distribution organizes test scores according to how oftern they occur
normal curve bell curve. most scores fall in middle
skewed distribution majority of scores occur at one end of curve
mean average
median middle number
mode most frequently
standard deviation degree to which various scores deviate from the mean
raw score number of items a student answers correctly without adjustment for guessing
percentage score percent of test items answered correctly
derived scores family of scores that alow us to make comparisons between test scores
developmental scores scores that have been transformed from raw scores and reflect average performance at age and grade levels
interpolation process of estimating the scores of students within the ages and grades of norming sample
extrapolation process of estimating the performance of students outside the ages and grades of normative sample
developmental quotient estimate of rate of development
percentile rank point in a distribution at or below which scores of a given percentage of students fall
standard score name given to a group or category of scores. helps compare one child's performance on several tests and compare to other student's performance
deviation IQ scores are frequently used to report the performance of students on norm-referenced standardized tests like WISC-III has mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15
normal curve equivalents (NCE) type of standard score with a mean of 50 and standard deviation of 21.06
stanines bands of standard scores that have a mean of 5 and a standard deviation of 2
basal level point below which the examiner assumes that the student could obtain all correct responses and it is the point at which the examiner begins testing
ceiling level point above which the examiner assumes that the student would obtain all the examiner stops testing
true score score an individual would obtain on a test if there were no measurement errors
confidence intervals a range within which the true score can be found
chronological age the precise age of the student in years and months
observation a systematic process of gathering information by looking at students and their environments
anecdotal record a brief narrative description of an event that observer felt was important to record
running record a description of events written as they occur
event recording or frequency recording. is procedure which observer records a behavior each time it occurs during a given period
duration recording a measure of the length of time a specific event or behavior persists
percentage duration rate finding percent of time the behavior occurs
intensity recording a measure of degree of a behavior
latency recording a measure of amount of time between a behavior or event and beginning of prespecified or target behavior
interval recording an observational method that involves recording of specific events during a prespecified time interval
category recording a system of recording behavior in discrete groupings
rating scales measure degree which a student exhibits a prespecified behavior
descriptors provide detailed information regarding each of the levels of rating scale
error of omission to leave out information that is helpful or important to understanding a student's behavior
error of commission including information that did not acutally occur
error of transmission occurs when observers record behaviors in an improper sequence
observer drift occurs when observer shifts away from original objectives of the observation
predetermined expectation bias about observation
reactivity refers to adjustments that individuals make in behaviors during an observation
checklist consists of a number of characteristics or behaviors arranged in a consistent manner that allows evaluator to check presence or absence of characteristic or behavior
questionaires consist of set of questions designed to gather information
conferencing involves meeting with parents, teachers, therapists, or professionals in other agencies to shar info, concerns, or ideas about common issues
collaborating involves commitment on individuals part to work cooperatively with other toward common goal
performance-based assessment describes 1 or more approaches for measuring student progress, skills and achievements
authentic assessment similar to performance assessment except student completes knowledge, skills, in real-life context
portfolio systematic collection of student's work
exhibition display of student's work demonstrates knowledge, abilities, skills, and attitudes concerning one project or unit of work
rubric assessment scale that identifies the area of performance and defines various levels of achievement
analytic scoring reports an independent score for each of the criteria of assessment scale
holistic scoring type of scoring in which teacher assigns a single score to the student's work
benchmarks examples of student work that illustrate each scoring level on the rubric either analytic or holistic
anchor papers student papers that represent writing at different levels of performance
consequential validity extent to which an assessment instrument promotes the intended consequences
hypothesis generation interpreting results of testing that provides an explanation of a student's performance and behavior based on the collected assessment data
examiner bias can be personal bias or result of formal training like from theory or philosophy
achievement testing the assessment of past learning that is usually result of formal and informal educational experiences
curriculum-based assessment (cba) an approach to linking instruction with assessment
probe a diagnostic technique that modifies instruction in order to determine whether an instructional strategy is effective
error analysis to identify patterns of error students make in their work and understand why students make the errors and provide targeted instruction to correct them
literacy involves being able to read, write, think, and communicate
phonemic awareness involves skills of recognizing separating, blending, and manipulating phonemes
phonics involves knowing how specific spoken sounds relate to particular written letters
reading fluency involves reading letters, sounds, words, and text passages quickly, automatically, accurately, and smoothly
syntax relates to flow of language and knowledge of rules for connecting words into meaningful sentences and simple sentences into complex ones
reading comprehension involves being able to obtain meaning from a text, understand what is read, connect info within context of text and relate what is being read to what is already known
extinction a reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior is withheld, so behavior will decrease until no longer exists
continuum of services range of placement and service options for students with special needs, where to receive services, what necessary services
behavioral-based curriculum demonstrates student interactions in environment in order to instruct students in functional and age appropriate skills
cognitive development curriculum provides age appropriate activities discovery-based and interactive
social skills curriculum improves social skills like personal interactions, following directions, handling situations, etc.
coaching giving students hints to enhance learning by performing task or gaining skill
cueing stimulus or reminder for student to perform correct response
incidental teaching teaches a skill during an event in which it is presently occurring
abc analysis determining antecedent, behavior, and consequence of a behavior as well as function
dibels a measurment system to assess child's skill levels in phonological awareness, alphabetic principles, and oral reading fluency
cloze procedure to build comprehension and language skills by supplying passage with missing elements
Created by: hmay