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# Particles

Describe the structure of the atom A central nucleus with electrons orbiting in shells
What are protons and neutrons collectively known as Nucleons
What are the relative charges for the proton, neutron and electron Proton=+1 Electron=-1 Neutron=0
What are the relative masses for the proton, neutron and electron Proton=1 Neutron=1 Electron=1/1800
Define nucleon number The total number of protons and neutrons in the atom
Define proton number The total number of protons in the nucleus
How can you estimate the relative atomic mass The sum of the protons and neutrons
Define specific charge The ratio of a particles charge to its mass
What are the units for specific charge C/kg
What is the charge of a proton 1.60x10^-19
What is the charge of an electron -1.60x10^-19
What is the mass of a proton and neutron 1.67x10-27
What is the mass of an electron 5.56x10-34
How do you calculate the specific charge of a nucleus -Nucleon number x Nucleon mass = mass(kg) -Proton number x Charge of proton = charge(C) -Calculate specific charge using equation
How do you calculate the specific charge for an ion -Nucleon number x Nucleon mass = mass(kg) -Charge of ion x Charge of proton = charge(C) -Calculate specific charge using equation
Define isotope An atom with the same no of protons but a different no of neutrons
Explain how isotopic data can be used for carbon dating -% of carbon-14 in living organisms is roughly the same -When these organisms die the carbon-14 atoms decay -The isotopic data can be used to find the % of carbon-14 left in the organism -This will give an insight into the age of the organism
What are the four fundamental forces -Strong nuclear -Weak nuclear -Electrostatic -Gravity
Explain the attraction/repulsion of the SNF -At distances of <0.5fm it is repulsive -At 1.5fm it is strongly attractive and holds the nucleus in place -Beyond 3fm it drops rapidly and can't hold the nucleus in place
How far does the electrostatic force extend Infinitely
What determines whether a nucleus will be stable or unstable The balance of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
How does an excess of protons or neutrons upset the balance By disrupting the binding energy
Give the properties of alpha decay -2 protons and 2 neutrons -Highly ionising as has a large mass -Only happens in atoms with >82 protons and the nuclei are too big for the SNF to keep them stable -Absorbed by a sheet of paper -Short range in air
Give the properties of beta decay -High speed electron -Neutron converted to proton, electron and antineutrino -Happens in neutron rich isotopes -Antineutrino carries away energy and momentum -Greater range than alpha in air -Stopped by several mm of aluminium
What is an antineutrino A very small uncharged particle
Give the properties of gamma decay -The surplus energy after alpha and beta decay given off as EM radiation -Massless uncharged, travels at the speed of light -Weakly ionising -Stopped by thick lead
What are the three methods of radiation detection -Spark counter -Cloud chamber -Geiger Muller tube
Describe the discovery of the neutrino -After β decay -Energy in nucleus was too low -Either conservation of energy was wrong or there was another particle -Wolfgang Pauli proposed the existence of neutrinos -They were observed 50 years later
When does mass increase As it approaches the speed of light
What is Einsteins energy equation E=mc^2
1ev= 1.6x10^-19
Particle-antiparticle pairs have the same________and________and opposite_______ Particle-antiparticle pairs have the same rest mass and minimum energy and opposite charge
What is the antiparticle of the proton Anti-proton
What is the antiparticle of the neutron Anti-neutron
What is the antiparticle of the electron Positron
What is the antiparticle of the neutrino Anti-neutrino
Define photon A packet of EM radiation
Who suggested that EM waves can only be released in discrete packets or quanta Max Planck
Who expanded Max Planck's theory saying that EM waves and the energy they carry can only exist in discrete packets Einstein
What are the two equations for energy of a photon E=hf and E=hc/λ
Created by: Liam P