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IB Chem B SL

Anabolic complex molecules from smaller inorganic or organic substances
Catabolic complex molecules broken to smaller fragments
condensation reaction common anabolic reaction releasing water
hydrolysis reaction common catabolic reaction adding water
Monomer for protein amino acid
Monomer for charbohydrate monosaccharide
Isoelectric point pH at which an amino acid is electrically neutral
Zwitterion a substance that has both positive and negative charged groups
Protein primary structure amino acid sequence of the protein (intramolecular forces). Covalent (amide peptide) bonding
Protein secondary structure due to regular repeating hydrogen bonding along the same peptide chain and may consist of turns known as α–helix, or sheets known as β–pleated sheets.
Protein tertiary structure due to the R side groups (note these are called intramolecular forces)
Protein quaternary structure The relationship of the polypeptide to other polypeptides
Fibrous proteins insoluble structural components that are elongated with a dominant secondary structure
Globular proteins soluble functional tools that have a spherical shape and a dominant tertiary structure
denature when a protein loses its tertiary structure hence its activity
substrate substance (reactant) that binds to the enzyme
active site area in the tertiary structure of the protein that acts on the substrate
co-factors proteins that bind to the enzyme to allow the active site to function
co-enzymes another term for co-factor
3 major group of lipids triglycerides, phopholipids, steroids
Iodine number number of grams of iodine that react with 100g of fat
Rancidity the chemical or biological decomposition of fats and oils that produces unpleasant odours.
Hydrolytic rancidity caused by the hydrolysis of ester bonds on exposure to water
Oxidative rancidity caused by oxygen free radical reactions with double bonds and is accelerated by sunlight
hydrophilic attracted to water (small and polar)
hydrophobic not attracted to water (large and non polar)
LDL (low density lipoproteins) associated with increasing cardiovascular disease
HDL (high density liproproteins) associated with lowering cardiovascular disease
Macronutrients substances that make up more than 0.005% of our body weight
Micronutrients substances that make up less than 0.005% of our body weight
Vitamins organic micronutrients that cannot be synthesized by the organism in sufficient amounts and must either be obtained from suitable foods or taken as food supplements.
Malnutrition the lack of regular, balanced supply of nutrients
Xenobiotics chemical compounds that are found in a living organism, but which are foreign to that organism
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Xenobiotics that remain the in environment for long periods of time without being metabolized
Green chemistry an approach that works to minimize the use and generation of hazardous chemicals.
Atom economy the ratio of masses to determine the practical reaction yield.
Created by: andrewweng0406