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Chemistry Final

QuestioAnswer
Everything we see is made up of _________, which is defined as anything that has _____ and takes up space matter; mass
Your text defines chemistry as the study of matter and the _______ it undergoes. changes
Sometimes chemists do research just to obtain new knowledge: This kind of science is called ____ _______. Most research done by drug companies is done to develop new drugs: This kind of science is called _______ _______. pure science; applied science
All scientific research involves the __________ ______, which is a systematic approach to solving problems in science, but may have slight variations in mehtods scientific method
Observations made by scientists often involve measuring and counting things. These types of observations are ____________. If, however, Bob notes that Hank's hair is blue today, Bob has made a ___________ observation. quantitative; qualitative
An experiment is a way to test a __________. hypothesis
In an experiment, the scientist is in control of the ___________ variable and measures the effect it has on the _________ variable. independent; dependent
Mass is measured in units called _________, while weight is a force cause by _______ acting on a mass and is measured in Newtons. kilogram; gravity
All matter is either a pure substance, also known as a ________, or a mixture of chemicals. chemical
A chemical, or pure substance, can be either an _______ or a _________. element; compound
The SI unit used for temperature is ______. kelvin
__________ ________ is a system used to express numbers using significant digits and a power of ten. scientific notation
SI has just seven _____ ______, based on physical objects or phenomena. base units
_______ _____ are units made by combining two or more base units. derived units
The number 100.00 has _ significant figures. 5
A gram has ___ centigrams. 100
There are _______ meters in a megameter. 1,000,000
An atom is the smallest particle of an ________ that retains all the properties of that element. element
The _______ _______ is the number of protons an atom of an element has, and is equal to the number of electrons it has. atomic number
An atom must have the same number of protons and electrons in order to make the overall charge ________, like the charge of a neutron. neutral
_______ is given credit for discovering the electron using the cathode ray tube. Thomson
An atom's neutrons, as well as its protons, must be considered when finding the atom's ____ ______, which is given in units called amu's mass number
Atoms of an element with different masses due to varying numbers of ________ are called isotopes. neutrons
Carbon-14is an isotope of (what element) ______ with _ neutrons. carbon; 8
Sometimes substances spontaneously emit radiation in a process called ___________ _____. radioactive decay
Alpha or beta radiation results in changes to an atom's _______, so these changes are called nuclear changes. nucleus
________ radiation happens when a neutron turns into a proton and emits an electron. Beta
_____ radiation happens when a nucleus emits two protons and two neutrons, which is a particle identical to a _____ nucleus. alpha; radioactive
X-rays , radio waves, visible light waves, and gamma rays are all part of the ______________ spectrum. electromagnetic
When compared with gamma rays, visible light waves have a lower ________ and a higher wavelength. frequency
Solar panels work because when photons of a certain energy strike certain metals, electrons may be emitted. This phenomenon is known as the ___________ ________. photoelectric effect
A _______ is a particle of light or other electromagnetic radiation that has no mass. It carries energy. photon
Each element gives off its own set of frequencies when its _______ are excited. electrons
The set of frequencies given off by an elements are its atomic emission spectrum, which is often referred to as its ____ ________, because the bands of colors in evidence are vertical lines within the range of visible light frequencies. line spectrum
The ___________ of a wave is the distance from one wave crest to the next. wavelength
When an atom receives energy, some of its electrons may jump higher energy levels, putting the atom into an __________ state. excited
The behavior of an atom is determined by its _________ arrangement. electron
When all of an atom's electrons are at the lowest energy level possible, the atom is in its ______ ______. ground state
The electrons in an atoms outer energy level (outermost orbitals) are known as _________ __________. valence electrons
Elements in the same family have the same number of _______ ________. valence electrons
Another name for family on the periodic table of elements is ______. group
On the periodic table, elements are arranged in horizontal rows, called _______. periods
When we arrange elements by an increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties. This is a statement of the _________ _____. periodic law
________ is the scientist credited with arranging elements by atomic number, rather than mass. Moseley
Elements which are neither entirely metal but are also nonmetals are called __________. metalloids
The elements in group 7A are known as the _________. halogens
The elements in group 2A are known as the _______ ______ ________. alkaline earth metals
The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom, turning into a positive ion, is its _________ _______. ionization energy
It is very easy to remove an electron from any element in the family known as _________ _______, as they have just a single election on their outer energy level. alkali metals
The atoms ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond is known as _____________. electronegativity
Atomic radii tend to _________ across a period (left to right). decrease
Cobalt, technetium, silver, and tungsten are all classified as __________ __________. transition elements
A charged particle that is made of just one kind of atom is a ________ ____, while an ion made of more than one atom is a __________ _____ monatomic ion; polyatomic ion
When a cation is joined to an anion by electrostatic forces, a(n) _______ bond is formed, ionic
Ionic compounds have their particles arranged in a regular, repeating pattern called a _______ _________. crystal lattice
Atoms form ions in order to gain a complete _____ of valence electrons. They do this by gaining or ________ electrons. octet; losing
Another name for the change formed by an atom of any element is the _________ number. _________ elements may have more than one oxidation number, so the names of ionic compounds with transition elements must have Roman numerals. oxidation; Transition
Ions combine in whatever ratio is required to make the overall charge of the compound _______. neutral
If barium is combined with chlorine, there will be ____ barium ion(s) for every ____ chloride ion(s). one; two
When we name an ionic compound, the _______ is named first. cation
Calcium becomes an ion by losing two valence electrons; therefore, a calcium ion has a ________ charge. 2+
When ionic compounds are dissolved in water they form ________, meaning that these solutions can conduct an electrical current. electrolytes
An atoms ability to attract extra electrons (as in to form an ion) is known as _______________. electronegativity
An acid is formed when a compound containing the element _______ dissolves in water, giving off H+ ions. hydrogen
The theory that explains how a molecule's shape is determined by the repulsion of its electron pairs is known as ________ theory VSEPR
The nature of a chemical bond (whether it's ionic, polar covalent, or non polar covalent) is determined by the difference in __________ between the two atoms bonding. electronegativity
Unequal sharing of electrons results in a _____ ______ bond. polar covalent
A compound formed of molecules each containing one carbon atom and one oxygen atom is called ________ ________. carbon monoxide
Dicarbon heptahydride is a compound whose molecules each contain ____ carbon atoms and _____ hydrogen atoms two; seven
Two factors must be considered in determining if a molecule is polar; the nature of each _____ in the molecule, and the _______ of the molecule. bond; shape
The molecule shape which is formed when a central atom bonds to four other atoms is called _____________. tetrahedral
An acid made from just two elements is a _________ _____. binary acid
Elements which form molecules which consist of two of the atoms of that element are known as _______, and can be remembered by the "rule of gens". diatomic
If a nitrogen atom bonds with another nitrogen atom, the resulting N2 molecule will have a ________ covalent bond. triple
A+B=AB synthesis
AB=A+B decomposition
AB+C=AC+B single replacement
AB+CD=AD+CB double replacement
hydrocarbon+O2=H2O+CO2 combustion
Created by: Cy young