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Aqueous Ions

AQA A Level Chemistry

QuestionAnswer
Define Lewis acid and Lewis base Lewis acid- electron pair acceptor, Lewis base-electron pair donor
Give the formula of metal-aqua ions formed when iron(II), copper(II), iron (III) and aluminium ions in aqueous solution. [Fe(H2O)6]2+, [Cu(H2O)6]2+,, [Fe(H2O)6]3+,[Al(H2O)6]3+,
Explain why [Fe(H2O)6]3+, is more acidic than [Fe(H2O)6]2+, Fe3+ is more charge dense than Fe2+ , because it is smaller and has a higher charge. This means it has a bigger polarising effect on its water ligands. This weakens the 0—H bond in the water ligand and makes it more likely to hydrolyse in the presence of
Describe what you would observe and give an equation for the reaction between [Fe(H20)6]2+ and a few drops of sodium hydroxide. Green solution forms a green precipitate [Fe(H2O)6]2+ + 20H- ---> [Fe(H20)4(OH)2 + 2H2O
"Describe what you would observe and give an equation for the reaction between [Fe(H20)6]2+ and a few drops of ammonia Green solution forms a green precipitate [Fe(H20)6]2+ + 2NH3 ------> [Fe(H20)4(OH)2] + 2NH4+
State and explain what happens to the transition metal containing product of the above reaction if the reaction mixture is left to stand in air. The green precipitate turns brown as the iron (II) is oxidised to iron (Ill) by the oxygen in air
Describe what you would observe and give an equation for the reaction between [Fe(H20)6]2+ and a few drops of sodium carbonate. Green solution forms a green precipitate [Fe(H20)6]2+ + CO32 - ------.> FeCO3 + 6H20
Describe what you would observe and give an equation for the reaction between [Cu(H20)6]2+ and a few drops of sodium hydroxide. Blue solution forms a Blue precipitate [Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 20H- ---> [Cu(H20)4(OH)2] + 2H2O
"Describe what you would observe and give an equation for the reaction between [Cu(H20)6]2+ and a few drops of ammonia Blue solution forms a Blue precipitate [Cu(H20)6]2+ + 2NH3 ------> [Cu(H20)4(OH)2] + 2NH4+
"Describe what you would observe and give an equation for the reaction between [Cu(H20)4(OH)2] and excess aqueous ammonia Blue precipitate to dark blue solution [Cu(H2O)4(OH)2] + 4NH3 → [Cu(H2O)2(NH3)4]2+ + 2H2O + 2OH-
Describe what you would observe and give an equation for the reaction between [Cu(H20)6]2+ and a few drops of sodium carbonate. Blue solution forms a Blue precipitate [Cu(H20)6]2+ + CO32 - ------.> CuCO3 + 6H20
Describe what you would observe and give an equation for the reaction between [Al(H20)6]3+ and a few drops of sodium hydroxide. Colourless solution forms a white precipitate [Al(H2O)6]3+ + 30H- ---> [Al(H20)3(OH)3] + 3H2O
"Describe what you would observe and give an equation for the reaction between [Al(H20)3(OH)3 and excess Sodium Hydroxide White precipitate re-dissolved to form a colourless solution [Al(H2O)3(OH)3] + OH- → [Al(H2O)2(OH)4]- + H2O
Describe what you would observe and give an equation for the reaction between [Al(H20)6]33+ and a few drops of sodium carbonate. Colourless solution forms a white precipitate effervescence 2[Al(H20)6]3+ + 3CO32 - ------.> 2[Al(H20)3(OH)3] + 3CO2 + H2O
"Describe what you would observe and give an equation for the reaction between [Al(H20)6]3+ and a few drops of ammonia Colourless solution forms a White precipitate [Al(H20)6]3+ + 3NH3 ------> [Al(H20)3(OH)3] + 3NH4+
Describe what you would observe and give an equation for the reaction between [Fe(H20)6]3+ and a few drops of sodium hydroxide. Orange solution forms a brown precipitate [Fe(H2O)6]3+ + 30H- ---> [Fe(H20)3(OH)3] + 3H2O
"Describe what you would observe and give an equation for the reaction between [Fe(H20)6]3+ and a few drops of ammonia Orange solution forms a brown precipitate [Fe(H20)6]3+ + 3NH3 ------> [Fe(H20)3(OH)3] + 3NH4+
Describe what you would observe and give an equation for the reaction between [Fe(H20)6]33+ and a few drops of sodium carbonate. Orange solution forms a brown precipitate effervescence 2[Fe(H20)6]3+ + 3CO32 - ------.> 2[Fe(H20)3(OH)3] + 3CO2 + H2O
Write equations to demonstrate the amphoteric nature of [Al(H20)3(OH)3] [Al(H20)3(OH)3] + OH- ------> [Al(OH)4]- + 3H2O [Al(H20)3(OH)3] + H3O+ ------> [Al(H2O)6]3+ + 3H2O
Created by: JBearfield