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Transition metals

AQA A Level Chemistry

In general, what is a d-block element? An element whose outermost electron is in a d orbital
In general, what is a ligand substitution reaction? A reaction in which one or more ligands is/are replaced by one or more different ligands in a complex
In general, what is a transition element? An element which has at least one stable ion with a partially filled d-orbital
List the four typical properties of a transition metal "Variable oxidation states The formation of coloured aqueous ions. The formation of complex ions Their use as Heterogeneous Catalysts
What is the electronic structure of copper? "1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10
Why is zinc not a transition metal? It does not form a stable ion which has unfilled d orbitals
Explain in terms of ionisation energy why Transition metals have a variety of oxidation states "Transition metals have a large number of oxidation states because when removing d electrons there is never a big jump from one ionisation energy to the next.
List the five colours of the five oxidation states of vanadium " yellow VO2+, blue VO2+ ions, green V3+ ions, V2+
Define bidentate ligand A ligand which can donate two lone pairs of electrons to form two coordinate bonds with the central metal ion
Define complex A central metal ion surrounded by ligands
Define coordinate (dative covalent) bond. An electrostatic force of attraction between the shared pair of electrons and the nuclei of the atoms involved where both electrons are from the same atom.
Define coordination number. the number of dative covalent bonds formed to a central metal ion in a complex
Define ligand. A molecule or ion which can donate one or more lone pairs of electrons to form coordinate (date covalent) bond(s) with a central metal ion in a complex
Define monodentate ligand. A ligand which can donate one lone pair of electrons to form one coordinate bond with the central metal ion
Define multidentate ligand A ligand which can donate multiple lone pairs of electrons to form multiple coordinate bonds with the central metal ion
Describe the chelate effect and how it affects the stability of ligands "When we replace ligands with those that form more co-ordinate bonds, reaction is feasible (driven by increase in entropy)Reverse reaction is NOT feasible due to large +ve ΔG caused by big decrease in entropy
"Name this complex ion [Cr(H20)6]3+ hexaaquachromium(III) ion
"Name this complex ion [Cu(CN)6]4- Hexacyanocuprate(II)
"Name this complex ion [Co(H2O)4Cl2]+ Tetraaquadichlorocabalt(III)
Write an equations for the reaction of chloride ions with Hexaaquacopper(II) [Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4Cl- → [CuCl4]2- + 6H2O
Write an equation for the reaction of excess aqueous ammonia with hexaaqucopper(II) ions [Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 2NH3 → [Cu(H2O)4(OH)2] + 2NH4+ (hydrolysis)
Write an equations for the reaction of a few drops of aqueous ammonia with hexaaqucopper(II) ions [Cu(H2O)6]2+ + 4NH3 → [Cu(H2O)2(NH3)4]2+ + 4H2O
What are the two possible shapes for complex ions with a coordination number of 4 Tetrahedral and square planar
Explain the origin of the colour of transition metal aqua ions such as [Cr(H2O)6]3+. "d – orbitals/subshell/energy level split (in energy by (ligands), Electron transitions/jumps from lower to higher energy level, Absorbs light in visible region/reference to white light
Explain why [Zn(H2O)6]2+ ions have no colour " d-(sub) shell / orbitals are full / 3d10 arrangement of electrons (1), No jumps of d-electrons /no d-d transitions
How does a catalyst work? "substance that speeds up reaction without being used up, They provide an alternative mechanism with lower activation energy.
Define a heterogenenous catalyst "Heterogeneous catalyst is in different phase to the reactants.
Define a homogenenous catalyst Homogeneous catalyst is in the same phase as the reactants.
Describe the three stages of a heterogeneneous catalyst work? Reactants adsorbed onto surface (onto active sites), Reaction takes place, Products are desorbed (leave the surface).
Write two equations that show the action of Fe2+ as a homoegeneous catalyst for this reaction 2 I- + S2O82- -------> I2 + 2 SO42- "2 Fe2+ + S2O82- → 2 Fe3+ + 2 SO42- , 2 Fe3+ + 2 I- → 2 Fe2+ + I2
Created by: JBearfield



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