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Structures

Building structure 3003K1

QuestionAnswer
The structure below ground, up to and including the damp proof course (DPC) Substructure
Elements which are not essential to the building’s strength or structure, but provide a particular function, such as completing openings in walls, etc. Secondary Element
Everything above the substructure, including walls, floors and roofing Superstructure
These are the main supporting, enclosing and protecting elements of the superstructure. They divide space and provide floor-to-floor access. Primary Element
The inner skin is a timber frame clad in timber sheet material, covered in a breathable membrane to prevent water and moisture penetrating the timber. The outer skin is usually face brickwork. Timber frame construction
Used to provide a guide for setting out foundations. Usually made up from timber sections they provide a datum to set the direction and width of a foundation. Profiles
The ground area covered by a building Building footprint
Non-load bearing internal walls. They are similar to timber stud walls, except metal studs are used and the plasterboard is screwed to the studding. Metal stud partitions
This form of internal wall can also be load bearing if thicker timbers are used. As with metal stud partitions sound/thermal qualities can be improved with the addition of insulation or different types of plasterboard. Timber stud walling
Walls built from traditional brick. They contain no cavity and will therefore be used for boundary walls, etc. The absence of a cavity can be noted by the use of ‘Flemish’ or ‘English’ bond. Solid brick walling
Timber battens which are fixed to an uneven wall to provide a flat surface, onto which plasterboard is attached and a plaster finish applied. Grounds lats
Polystyrene, Polyurethane and Glass fibre are all examples of: Thermal insulation
The ground area covered by a building Building footprint
Used in the construction of retaining walls, ground works and foundations, these bricks form a barrier against moisture movement. They are available as Class ‘A’ or ‘B’. Engineering Bricks
These bricks are used primarily in the construction of external walls in domestic and commercial applications. They are chosen for their aesthetic appeal and technical characteristics. They must also meet minimum standards for weather resistance. Facing bricks
Frames and linings, doors, windows, architrave and skirting are examples of: Secondary elements
Walls, floors roofs and stairs are examples of: Primary elements
Two brick/block walls built parallel to each other, with a gap between acting as a cavity. The cavity acts as a barrier to weather, with the outer leaf preventing rain and wind penetrating the inner leaf. Traditional cavity wall
Lines the inner skin of a timber frame and prevents water and moisture penetrating the timber. Breather membrane
The weight of the building itself and the materials used to construct the building, covering components such as floors and roofs. Dead load
The weight imposed upon a building from moveable loads like furniture as well as natural forces such as wind, rain and snow. Imposed load
Stresses which pull or stretch a material and can have a lengthening effect. These forces affect the underside of a beam. Tension
Stresses which squeeze the material and can have a shortening effect. These forces affect the top of a beam. Compression
Stresses which occurs when one part of a component slips or slides over another causing a slicing effect. Shear
The most common foundation used for most domestic dwellings and low-rise structures. Narrow strip foundation
A foundation used where very poor soil is found. This is basically a slab of concrete that is thicker around the edges which covers the ‘footprint’ of the building. Raft foundation
A foundation used for heavier structures or where weak soil is found. Wide strip foundation
A foundation used where the ground is of a poor unstable quality. Pre-cast concrete beams are driven vertically into the ground, accompanied by a concrete ‘Ring beam’. Pile foundation
A foundation where Pads are placed at strategic points, with concrete beams placed across each pad to spread the load. Pad foundation
Used In the bottom section of concrete foundations and within concrete lintels, this provides the element or component with a resistance against the stress known as tension. Steel reinforcement
This material will prevent the infiltration of water from the ground into the floor slab concrete. It is positioned below the floor slab concrete and insulation, but over a layer of sand to prevent accidental puncturing of the material. Damp proof membrane (DPM)
This is a dry concrete mix placed within the cavity and importantly below ground level. Its purpose is to support the foundation wall below ground level. Cavity fill
Placed along a bed joint, this component prevents dampness rising from the ground into the brickwork. It is essential that the ground level surrounding the building is no less than 150mm below the DPC Damp proof course (DPC)
A wall which supports any upper floors or roof Load bearing wall
This form of floor construction is laid in a similar way to joists. Here 50 mm thick timbers are laid onto a solid concrete floor without fixing. The decking is then fixed on the timbers. Insulation or underfloor heating can be placed between the timbers. Floating floor
With this form of floor construction Joists are either i) built into the inner skin of brickwork, ii) sat upon small walls (dwarf/sleeper wall), or iii) into a joist hanger. Suspended timber floor
Constructed on a sub-base incorporating hardcore, damp proof membranes and insulation. The depth of the hardcore and concrete will depend on the building and will be set by the Building Regulations and the local authority. Solid concrete floor
Created by: loneyefc