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Chemistry Chapter 7

terms

TermDefinition
Wave a periodic back and forth motion that transmits energy
Crests the high points of a series of waves
Troughs the low points of a series of waves
Wavelength the distance between any two corresponding points on successive waves
Amplitude a measure of the waves’ strength
Frequency the number of complete waves that pass by a point in a given time
hertz SI unit of frequency; one wave per second
Speed the rate at which the wave travels
Particle theory of light the idea that light can be pictured as streams of tiny particles emitted by light sources
Wave theory of light states that light consists of a series of waves rather than individual particles
Electromagnetic wave an electric field and a magnetic field vibrating at right angles to each other
Electromagnetic spectrum an arrangement of all forms of electromagnetic radiation in order of frequency and wavelength
Wave particle duality two sided nature of light
Quantum theory of light says that light consists of tiny bundles of energy
Photons tiny bundles of energy
Light electromagnetic waves traveling as photons
spectrometer separates colors
Spectroscope a prism separates light into its component wavelengths
Line spectrum a spectrum containing only certain colors
Continuous spectrum a spectrum with the complete array of colors
Energy levels specific orbits in which the electron moves about the nucleus
Ground state the lowest energy state of an electron
Excited states all states higher than the ground state
Matter waves particles that, when in motion, have properties of waves
Wave mechanical model combined the Bohr model with Broglie’s hypothesis
Standing wave a 3D matter wave with an integral number of wavelengths in an orbit
Uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to simultaneously determine the momentum and the position of an electron with precision
Orbitals regions of space in which there is a high probability of finding an electron
Orbit an electrons definite path in space
Electron cloud model Born's interpretation of the wave
Probability contour drawn around where 90% of the electrons are most likely to be found
Electron configuration the complete arrangement of electrons in an atom
Quantum numbers four numbers that describe the electron
Principle quantum number describes the electron shell of the electron
Electron shell main energy level of the electron
subshells make up each electron shell
Subshell quantum number indicates the shape or type of subshell
Magnetic quantum number describes the orientation of the orbital within the subshell
Spin quantum number describes the spin of the electron
Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
Aufbau principle electrons occupy the lowest energy orbital available
Hund’s rule one electron will fill each orbital before pairing begins
Valence electrons the outermost electrons
Lewis symbol uses dots written around the element’s symbol to represent the valence electrons
Stimulated emission if an atom is struck by a photon of the correct frequency during its excited state, the electron instantly emits two identical photons
Laser narrow beams of high intensity light
Created by: tatianaprince