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Bonding

GCSE chemistry and combined chemistry

QuestionAnswer
Why do atoms transfer electrons in ionic bonding? So that they can have full outer shells
Explain in terms of electrons what occurs when lithium bonds with fluorine One electron transferred from lithium to fluorine
Explain in terms of electrons what occurs when magnesium bonds with oxygen Two electrons transferred from magnesium to oxygen
Explain in terms of electrons what occurs when beryllium bonds with oxygen (3 marks) Two electrons transferred from beryllium to oxygen
Explain in terms of electrons what occurs when magnesium bonds with chlorine One electron transferred from magnesium to two different chlorine atoms
Explain in terms of electrons what occurs when sodium bonds with oxygen Two electrons transferred to an oxygen atom from two different sodium atoms
Why do sodium ions and chlorine ions form an ionic bond? There is an electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions
Why don't sulphur ions and oxygen ions form ionic bonds with each other? Both have negative charges so would repel
What is the name for a substance made of billions of oppositely charged ions joined together? Giant ionic lattice
Define giant ionic lattice A huge 3D network of ions
State the melting points of ionic substances High
Explain why ionic substances have high melting points. Strong bonds between oppositely charged ions are hard to break
Will NaCl(s) conduct electricity? No
Will NaCl (aq) conduct electricity? Yes (aq stands for aqueous which means it is dissolved in water)
Will NaCl (l) conduct electricity? Yes
What does molten mean? Melted
Explain why ionic compounds do not conduct electricity when solid Because the ions are not free to move
Explain why ionic compounds conduct electricity in solution Because the ions are free to move
Explain why ionic compounds conduct electricity when molten Because the ions are free to move
Explain why chlorine and fluorine form covalent bonds They are both non-metals
Complete the sentence: In covalent bonds, electrons are _______________________ Shared
In ionic bonds, electrons are ___________________ Transferred
What is the name given to the structure of diamond, graphite and silicon dioxide? Giant covalent
How many bonds does each carbon have in diamond? 4
Explain why diamond has a high melting point Giant structure, Strong covalent bonds between the atoms, requires a lot of energy to break
Explain why most giant covalent substances do not conduct electricity (3 marks) There are no electrons/ions/charged particles that are free to move
Explain why graphite conducts electricity Has delocalised electrons between the layers that can move through the graphite
Explain why graphite can act as a lubricant Weak forces between layers which are free to slide over each other
What is graphene? One layer of graphite
What is a fullerene? Substance made of carbon atoms arranged in a cage
What type of substance are methane and water? Simple molecular (or simple molecules)
What is a molecule? A group of atoms chemically bonded together
Describe the structure of simple covalent molecules Strong covalent bonds between atoms, weak forces holding the molecules together
What are intermolecular forces? Weak forces between molecules which hold them together
Explain why methane has a low melting point It is a simple molecular substance with weak forces between the molecules (which are easy to break)
What is a polymer? Millions of small molecules joined together in a chain to form a large molecule
Describe the main features of metals in terms of their structure Positive metal ions arranged in layers with delocalised electrons
Explain why metals can conduct electricity Delocalised electrons are free to carry charge
Explain why pure metals are soft Layers of metal ions are free to slide over each other
Explain in terms of electrons what occurs when lithium bonds with chlorine One electron transferred from lithium to chlorine
What charge will an ion of lithium take? 1+ (one electron in the outer shell, needs to lose it)
What charge will an ion of beryllium take? 2+ (two electrons in the outer shell, needs to lose them both)
What charge will an ion of barium take? 2+ (group 2 so two electrons in the outer shell, needs to lose them both)
What charge will an ion of fluorine take? 1- (7 electrons in the outer shell, needs to gain one)
If something has gained electrons, what charge will it have? Negative
If something has lost electrons, what charge will it have? Positive (because they have lost a negative!)
What charge will an ion of oxygen take? 2- (6 electrons in outer shell so needs to gain two)
What is an ion? an atom which has lost or gained an electron
How many electrons, protons and neutrons in a sodium ion Na+ ? 11 protons, 12 neutrons, 10 electrons
What are the limitations of dot and cross diagrams. It does not show the shape of the molecule or the size of the atoms.
If a compound name ends in -ate what does this show? It is a molecule made of the other elements in the name and oxygen.
What are the limitations of a ball and stick model It does not show the electrons involved in the bonds. It does not show the 3d shape
What elements are in sodium sulfate? Sodium, sulfur and oxygen
If a compound name ends in -ide what does this show? It is a molecule made of 2 elements only.
How many electrons, protons and neutrons in an oxygen ion O2- ? 8 protons, 8 neutrons, 10 electrons
How many electrons, protons and neutrons in a chloride ion Cl- ? 17 protons, 18 neutrons, 18 electrons
How many electrons, protons and neutrons in a magnesium ion Mg2+ ? 12 protons, 12 neutrons, 10 electrons
What elements are in potassium hydroxide? potassium, oxygen and hydrogen
What elements are in sulfuric acid? hydrogen, sulfur and oxygen
What elements are in iron carbonate iron, carbon and oxygen
Created by: JBearfield