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Jared Henry

cell vocabulary words

TermDefinition
Cell the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.
Cell Theory that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.
Organelle(s) any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell
Organism an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form.
Cytology the branch of biology concerned with the structure and function of plant and animal cells. Nucleus-a dense organelle present in most eukaryotic cells, typically a single rounded structure bounded by a double membrane, containing the genetic material
Nucleus a dense organelle present in most eukaryotic cells, typically a single rounded structure bounded by a double membrane, containing the genetic material.
Diffusion the action of spreading the light from a light source evenly so as to reduce glare and harsh shadows
Osmosis a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
Semi-permable (of a material or membrane) allowing certain substances to pass through it but not others, especially allowing the passage of a solvent but not of certain solutes.
Mitochondria an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers (cristae).
Cell Wall a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In algae and higher plants it consists mainly of cellulose
Viruses an infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat, is too small to be seen by light microscopy, and is able to multiply only within the living cells of a host.
Centriole(s) a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
Chloroplast(s) (in green plant cells) a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
Phylum a principal taxonomic category that ranks above class and below kingdom.
Ribosomes a minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.
Endoplasmic Reticulum a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
Pinocytosis the ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane.
Created by: xjah6