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Chemistry Chapter 7

Ions that are formed from one atom are known as _______. monatomic ions
Ionic compounds that absorb water into their solid structure form. hydrates
A group of atoms united by covalent bonds is a(n) ________. molecule
Ionic compounds are always ________. electrically neutral
To form a bond, atoms share _______. valence electrons
Which type of formula best specifies how atoms bond in a molecule? empirical
A positively charged ion attracts a(n) _______. cation
Name 3 properties of Ionic compounds. -High melting points - Brittle - Good conductors in their liquid state
What is the electronegativity when 2 atoms are covalent and nonpolar? 0.4 or less
What is the electronegativity when 2 atoms are covalent and polar? 0.4< X < 2.0
What is the electronegativity when 2 atoms are ionic? < 2.0
Many common ions have the electron configuration of a noble gas. True or False. True
T/F. In a Lew dot diagram, the dots represent [atomic nuclei]. False. Valence electrons.
T/F. Negatively charged ions are [cations]. False. Anions.
T/F. The atoms that make up a sulfate ion are held together by [covalent] bonds. True.
T/F. To emphasize the ratio of ions in a compound, chemists use a [structural formula]. False. Empirical formula.
T/F. Atoms share electrons in an [ionic] bond. False. Covalent
T/F. [Molecules]are composed entirely of ions. False. Ionic compounds.
T/F. The name of the [cation] usually comes first in the name of an ionic compound. True.
T/F. A covalent bond may be polar or [ionic]. False. Nonpolar
Describe an ionic bond. Chemical bond between a positively charged ion and a negatively charged ion resulting from the transfer of electrons from one bonding atom to another.
Describe a covalent bond. Chemical bond resulting from the sharing of electrons between two bonding atoms.
Describe an ionic compound. A compound that is composed entirely of ions.
Describe a cation. A positively charged ion.
Describe an anion. A negatively charged ion.
Describe the octet rule. The rule that states that atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of valence electrons.
Describe monatomic ions. One atom ions.
Describe polyatomic ions. Two or more atom ions.
Describe binary ionic compounds. Compounds that contain the ions of only two elemens.
Describe an empirical formula. The formula used to denote the ratio of ions in a compound.
Describe a molecule. A group of atoms that are united by covalent bonds.
Describe a molecular substance. A substance that is made of only molecules.
Describe a molecular formula. The formula used to describe the compostion of a molecular compound.
Describe a structural formula. The formula that specifies which atoms are bonded to each other in a molecule.
Describe Lewis structures. Based on the Lewis dot diagram for atoms but used to describe covalent bonds.
Describe an unshared pair. Pairs of electrons in an atom involved in covalent bonds that are not shared in bonds.
Single bonds 2 atoms share exactly one pair of electrons
double bonds consists of two pairs of shared electrons
triple bonds consists of three pairs of shared electrons
polar when one atom is significantly more electronegative than another in a covalent bond
nonpolar when 2 atomshave similar or equal electronegativites and they both exert approximately equal pull on the electrons in the bond.
hydrates ionic compounds that absorb water into their solid structures
anhydrous substances water-free substances
Why are many elements more stable as ions than they are as atoms? In their ionic form, they have the same electron configuration as the previous noble gas, which are unreactive.
Why are some covalent bonds polar and others nonpolar Because the elements have varying electronegativites.
Created by: Lindsay_Loo88