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dr. hull sciencetest


Chemical Bonding the combining of atoms to form molecules or ionic compounds, and also holds the atoms or ions together
valence electrons an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom’s chemical properties
ionic bonds in ionic bonds valence electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom
covalent bond a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
double displacement reaction
decomposition reaction a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substance
law of conservation of mass the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
metallic bond a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them
product a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
synthesis reaction a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound
single displacement reaction
reactant a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
isotope an atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass)
atomic number number of protons in an atom
atoms no charge, and is the smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same element
diatomic molecule two atoms of the same element
electrons not all electrons in an atom make chemical bonds, can be found in the outermost energy level
period row of elements
group/family column of elements
Dmitri Mendeleev russian chemist, who arranged the elements in order of atomic mass
Henry Mosely 1914 changed the arrangement of the elements on the table, he put them in order of increasing atomic number because there were some flaws in Mendeleev’s arrangement
atomic mass tells us how many protons plus neutrons in one atom of the element
nonmetals not ductile or malleable, usually not shiny, not good conductors of heat and electricity
metalloids properties of both metals and nonmetals, also called semiconductors, have about half of a complete set of electrons in outer energy level
metals solid at room temperature except for mercury, have few electrons in outer energy level, shiny, ductile, malleable, good conductors of heat and electricity
noble gas nonmetals, valence electrons: 8, except helium has 2, not reactive, colorless, odorless gases at room temperature, 1% of earth’s atmosphere, light bulbs, blimps, weather balloons, used to make colored lights
Alkali metals contains metals, 1 valence electron, very reactive, shared properties are soft, silver, colored, shiny, low density, ex. of compounds made with these elements sodium chloride and potassium bromide
Alkaline earth metals contains metals, valence electrons 2, second most reactive metals, other shared properties: silver colored and more dense than alkali metals, ex. of compounds with these elements: magnesium compounds in airplanes, cement, and chalk
Lanthanides transition metals, shininess, reactive, used to make steel and are used in computer monitors
Actinides transition metals, radioactive or unstable, made into laboratories; don’t occur in nature
boron family 1 metalloid and 4 metals, valence electrons: 3, reactive, solids at room temperature, most abundant element in earth’s crust, used to make auto parts, foil, cans, and siding
carbon family 1 nonmetal, 2 metalloids, and 2 metals, valence electrons: 4, reactivity varies among elements, solids at room temperature, makes diamonds and is in bio
nitrogen family 2 nonmetals, 2 metalloids, 1 metal, valence electrons: 5, reactivity varies among the elements, solids at room temperature (except for nitrogen) , 80% of air, fertilizers
oxygen family 3 nonmetals, 1 metalloid, 1 metal, valence electrons: 6, reactive, solids at room temperature (except oxygen), 20% of air, necessary of burning and for most living organisms
halogens nonmetals, valence electrons: 7, very reactive, poor conductors, violent reactions with alkali metals to form salts, never found uncombined in nature, salt, disinfectants water treatment, disinfectant
hydrogen family nonmetals, valence electrons: 1, reactive, colorless, odorless gas at room temperature, low density, explosive reactions with oxygen, found in stars, most abundant element in the universe, used for rocket fuel
Gilbert Lewis though of the theory that each bond is made up of two electrons and that they are shared gained or lost and that chemical bonds are holding the atoms together
Octet rule Remember that all atoms want a FULL OUTER ENERGY LEVEL (8 valence electrons) in order to be like a noble gas, REMEMBER THAT EIGHT IS GREAT!!!!!!!!
cations positively charged ions
anions negatively charged ions
Nucleus two or more nuclei that have small masses combine, or fuse, to form a larger nucleus
Electron no charge
Created by: PaulCookie