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CHEM6012

QuestionAnswer
What is an element? A pure substance, which cannot be subdivided by ordinary chemical means.
What is an atom? The smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical characteristics of the element and can enter into a chemical reaction.
What is a compound? A pure substance composed of two or more elements.
What are organic compounds? The group of compounds containing carbon as a major constituent, usually combined with hydrogen and other elements.
What are inorganic compounds? Any substance that is not produced from animal or plant activity. Most inorganic compounds do not contain carbon atoms. Minerals are classified as inorganic compounds.
What is valence of an element? The combining capacity of its atoms as compared to an atom of hydrogen.
What is a mixture? Materials which are combinations of different compounds, and which can be separated by physical processes such as distillation, filtering, or centrifuging.
Atoms and molecules exist together in different forms in nature, what are these forms called? States of matter.
What is the quantity of matter that consists of a fixed number of atoms and molecules called? Mass
What state of matter has loosely bound molecules with high velocity and tend to expand indefinitely? Gas
What state of matter has more tightly bound molecules than gases, tend to assume the shape of the vessel they are placed in, but do not distribute themselves uniformly, since their mass is large enough to be affected by gravity. Liquid
What is a vapour? When a liquid has been transformed to a gaseous phase through boiling or distillation.
What is the state of matter in which the molecules are close together and move slowly? Solid
What is the term used to describe liquids and gases which will assume the shape of the vessel they are placed in? Fluid
What does "Conservation of Matter" mean? Matter may be changed in form or state, divided or combined in many ways, but can not be created or destroyed.
What are the compounds that have carbon and hydrogen atoms as constituents? They are usually combustible and can exist in gas, liquid, or solid states. Hydrocarbons
Are paraffins the richest in hydrogen atoms? Yes
What is the chemical formula for propane? C3H8
What is the chemical formula for ethane? C2H6
What hydrocarbon group has a double bond between two carbon atoms in the chain? Olefins
What is the general formula for olefins? CnH2n
What is the general formula for paraffins? CnH2n+2
Are paraffins saturated or unsaturated with hydrogen atoms? Saturated
Are olefins saturated or unsaturated with hydrogen atoms? Unsaturated
What hydrocarbon group has it's carbon atoms arranged in a closed ring? Cycloparaffins
What hydrocarbon group is desirable due to their high antiknock properties? Aromatics
What hydrocarbon group is chemically active and may be used in the manufacture of dyes, synthetic chemicals and synthetic drugs? Aromatics
What hydrocarbon group is used widely as solvents? Aromatics
What hydrocarbon group is Benzene from? Aromatics
Natural gas contains tow other kinds of materials in addition to saleable hydrocarbons, what are they? Contaminants and Diluents
What 5 contaminants are of concern in Canadian climatic conditions? Water, Free Liquids, Toxic Gases, Pipeline Trash, and Sludge
What are the two most common contaminants found in natural gas? Water and Hydrogen Sulphide
Water vapour in a stream may have it's level further reduced if it is used in petrochemical feedstock, true or false? True
Non-combustible gases that reduce the heating value of sales gas are called? Diluents
What are the three main diluent gases? Carbon dioxide, nitrogen and helium
Carbon dioxide content is limited to 3.0% maximum to prevent excessive dilution of the sales gas calorific value and corrosion on metals, true or false? False, 2.0%
What is the maximum allowed oxygen allowed in sales gas? 0.4% to minimize the explosive hazard when handling finished natural gas product
What are 5 types of liquids and gases in use before, during and after the processing operations? Raw gas, well effluent gas, condensate, LPG (liquified petroleum gas) and dry natural gas
Any gas from the field that must be processed to meet the conditions of a pipeline gas purchase contract is called? Raw or natural gas
What are any untreated gases or liquids as they are produced from the reservoir, before transmission to the processing plant called? Well effluent gas
Is condensate a liquid at room temperature and pressure? Yes
Condensate consists of hexane and heavier hydrocarbons, commonly called C6+, true or false? False, made up of pentane and heavier hydrocarbons and called C5+
Propane and butane liquefied under relatively low pressures are called? LPG
Describe dry natural gas. Natural gas that contains only small quantities of LPG and condensate.
Gas produced from the wellhead, which contains gases as well as large amounts of condensate and LPG are called? Wet natural gas
What are the 2 classifications of sour natural gas? Lean (low) and Rich (high) sour gas
What is sweet gas? A gas that doesn't contain quantities of hydrogen sulphide or carbon dioxide in excess of those allowed by pipeline contracts.
What is casing head gas? A natural gas evolved from produced oil such as separator gas and treater gas. Usually rich in heavier hydrocarbons and must be processed prior to pipeline delivery.
Describe gas cap gas. A gas produced from a gas cap overlying on oil field. Production of this gas must be considered carefully since it will affect the production of oil later on.
What kind of gas is produced when volatile hydrocarbons are dissolved in crude oils in the reservoir under pressure? Solution gas
What gas meets all the conditions of a pipeline gas purchase contract and is ready for sale? Pipeline or sales gas
A gas leaving a system after any processing operation is called what? Residue gas (often the term used prior to the gas custody transfer from the plant to the pipeline operator)
Natural gasoline is a specification of product of a set vapour pressure, consisting of stabilized pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons. True or false? True
Generally, condensates that are close to natural gasoline specifications require lots of refining and are very saleable, true or false? False, they require little refining
What is the American Petroleum Institute (API) standard conditions for oil measurement? 15°C at atmospheric pressure
What are the three gravity (or grade) classifications of crude oil? Light, Medium, heavy
What are the two classifications of crude oil for sulphur content? Sweet (little), Sour (lots)
What are the two classifications of crude oil for the base? Paraffin and Asphaltinic
What does viscosity mean? Measurement of flow properties (pourability, resistance to flow)
What is the general makeup of Light Oil? Molecules are in the C6-C10 range. Many light oil molecules, some medium oil molecules, few heavy oil (large) molecules, few paraffins in the C40+ range (asphaltinic).
What is the general makeup of Medium Oil? Molecules are mostly C15-C20 range. Some light oil molecules, many medium oil molecules, some heavy oil molecules (C30+), some asphaltine molecules (C40+).
What is the general makeup of Heavy Oil? Molecules average the C30-C40 range. Few light oil molecules, some medium oil molecules, many heavy oil, asphaltine molecules (C40+)
Crude oil is "measured" by two main standards, what are they? Gravity and viscosity
What unit of measure is used for viscosity? Centipoises (Cp)
What 4 reasons make light oils more sought after? Higher gasoline content, reduced refinery processing requirements, higher price at wellhead or battery, lower lifting costs
Medium and heavy oils are upgraded to lighter oils for sales purposes, how is this done? In simple terms hydrogen atoms are added to the product to yield "light oil molecules."
Created by: jon_slawson