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Chapter 1: Matter

TermDefinition
Natural Laws Concise statements that summarize observations of certain natural phenomena.
Hypothesis A tentative (uncertain) explanation of a series of observations or of a natural law.
Theory A model used to explain and make further predictions about natural phenomena.
Scientific Method The general sequence of activities that lead to the advancement of scientific knowledge.
Matter Anything that occupies space and displays the properties of mass.
Composition Refers to the components and their relative proportions in a sample of matter.
Properties Qualities or attributes that can be used to distinguish one sample of matter from others.
Physical Change One or more physical properties of a sample of matter change, but the composition remains unchanged.
Chemical Change/Reaction A process in which one set of substances (reactants) is transformed into a new set of substances (products).
Chemical Property The ability (or inability) of a sample of matter to undergo a particular chemical reaction.
Atoms: The basic building block of matter.
Element A substance composed of a single type of atom. It cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
Compounds A substance made up of two or more elements.
Molecule A group of bonded atoms held together by covalent bonds and existing as a separate entity.
Substances Have a constant composition and properties. Can either be elements or compounds.
Homogeneous Mixture A mixture of elements and/or compounds that has a uniform composition and properties within a given sample.
Heterogeneous Mixture A solution in which the components separate into physically distinct regions of differing properties and often differing composition.
Solid A state of matter, in which atoms or molecules are in close contact, often in highly organized arrangement.
Liquid A state of matter, in which atoms or molecules are in close proximity. A liquid occupies a definite volume, but has the ability to flow and assume the shape of its container.
Gas A state of matter, in which atoms or molecules are generally much more widely separated than in liquids and solids. No definite shape or volume.
Mass Describes the quantity of matter in an object.
Celcius A temperature scale. 0°C is the melting point of ice. 100°C is the boiling point of water.
Fahrenheit A temperature scale. 32°F is the melting point of ice. 212°F is the boiling point of water.
Kelvin An absolute temperature, there are no negative Kelvin temperatures. No ° is used. The lowest attainable temperature is 0K = -273.15°C = -459.67°F (the temperature at which molecular motion stops).
Density A physical property obtained by dividing the mass of a material or object by its volume.
Extensive Property A property whose value depends on the quantity of matter observed, like mass or volume. Dependant Properties
Intensive Property A property that is independent of the quantity of matter being observed, like temperature and density. Independent Properties
Systematic Errors An error that recurs regularly in a series of measurements because of an inherent error in the measuring system. Eg. Faulty Calibration
Random Errors An error made by the experimenter in performing an experimental technique or measurement.
Precision The degree of reproducibility of a measured quantity. The closeness of agreement among repeated measurements.
Accuracy The "closeness" of a measured value to the true or accepted value of a quantity.
Significant Figures Digits in an experimentally measured quantity that establish the precision with which the quantity is known.
Created by: christenapicc
 

 



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