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Food Chemistry Exam1

Atoms, Molecules, and Energy

TermDefinition
Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass. Describes all of the physical substances around us.
Chemistry The study of matter and the changes it undergoes.
Atoms Fast moving particles that can join together to form molecules.
Proton Positive charged particle found in the nucleus
Neutron Particle with no charge. Found in the nucleus
Electron Negative charged particle found within the electron cloud .
Substance A form of matter that has a definite composition and distinct properties,
Mixture Combination of two or more pure substances (elements and/or compounds) which can be separated by physical means.(ex- air, blood, milk)
Heterogeneous mixtures Contain components that are readily distinguishable
Homogeneous mixtures Possess uniform component composition; components cannot be distinguished from one another
Compound The chemical combination of two or more elements, which are designated in the Periodic Table. (baking soda, table salt)
Hydrogen A colorless, odorless, flammable gas (it burns when exposed to oxygen and heat.)
Oxygen A colorless, odorless gas that supports combustion (the burning of material).
Water A colorless, odorless liquid that suppresses the burning of most materials.
Groups Chemical elements arranged in columns according to their properties in periodic table
Periods Rows in the periodic table
Element A substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means.
Physical change Does not alter the composition or identity of a substance.
Chemical change Alters the composition or identity of the substance(s) involved. cooking food, iron rusting, substances burning)
Chemical reactions Changes in the properties of the atoms and molecules involved from the result in the loss, gain, or sharing of electrons
Conduction Heat flow through a material or movement of heat from one item to another through direct contact.
Convection Heat flow via a moving fluid.
Radiation Heat flow via light waves.
Atomic number Number of protons in nucleus
Mass number Number of protons+number of neutrons
Isotopes Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei
Solid Closely packed and well defined structures
Liquid Fluid cohesive phase
Gas A fluid of dispersed molecules in air.
Molecules Two or more Atoms are joined by chemical bonds
Chemical Bond Chemical force linkages
Bond strength Work needed to break bond
Reactants Starting molecules
Products Ending molecules
Composition The types and amount of simpler substances that make up a sample of matter.
Property A characteristic that gives a substance its unique identity.
Physical property A characteristic that a sample of matter displays without undergoing a change in composition.(color , odor ,melting and boiling points)
Chemical property A characteristic that a sample of matter displays as it undergoes a change in composition .( ex-log burns, seed sprouts and grows to plant.)
Energy The ability to do work
Potential Energy Energy of position or stored energy
Kinetic Energy Energy of Motion
Temperature A physical property related to the kinetic energies of atoms or molecules in a substance. An intensive property!
Heat Energy that is transferred into or out of a system caused by a difference in temperature.
Created by: jazzyg
 

 



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