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GCSE chemistry


Where is the nucleus? It's in the middle of the atom
What does the nucleus contain? Protons and Neutrons
What charge does the nucleus have? A positive charge because of the protons
Where are the electrons? they whiz around the nucleus in energy levels
What charge do eletrons have? Negative
What mass do protons have? 1 (proton)
what mass do neutrons have? 1 (neutron)
what mass do electron have? Very very very small
What charge does the protons have? +1
What charge does the neutrons have? 0 - no charge
What charge does the electrons have? -1
What charge doe neutral atoms have? None
If some electrons are taken away or added they become charged and are called what? Ions
of the two numbers next to the element on the periodic table which one is the mass number? the top one
of the two numbers next to the element on the periodic table which one is the atomic number? the bottom one
what is the mass number? the total protons and neutrons
What is the atomic number? it's the amount of protons
How do you figure out the amount of neutrons? you subtract the atomic number from the mass number
Elements consist of one type of what? They contain one type of atom only
How are compounds bonded? they are bonded chemically
Is it easy to seperate a compound? not really.
Define isotope. isotopes are different atomic forms of the same elements which have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
Why cant isotopes have different amounts of protons? because if you change the proton number you change the element altogether.
The number of electrons affect what? the chemistry of the element
the number of the group in the periodic table represent what? it represents the amount of electrons in the element's outer shell
What group are the alkali metals in? group 1
What is group 7 called? halogens
What group is the noble gases in? Noble gases
The elements in the same group have the same amount of what? electrons in their outer shell
elements in the same group have similar what? they have similar properties
the properties of the elements are decided by what? they are decided entirely by know many electrons there is
electrons occupy shells, but it can also be called what? energy levels
how many electrons can you have in each energy level? 2/8/8/18
Atoms want to react because ... they want a full outer shell
when atoms have a full outer shell they become what? stable
Ionic bonding is what? they take and give electrons, then the ions attract to each other due to their charge and then form lattices
ionic bonding always produces what structures? Giant ionic
in ionic bonding,is the chemical bonds between them strong? yes, very very strong
describe the melting and boiling points for ionic compounds. the boiling and melting point is very high due to their very strong chemical bonds between all the ions int he giant structure
When does ionic compounds conduct electricty? when they are dissolved or molten
why does ionic compounds conduct electricty when dissolved ? when it's dissolved the ions seperate and are free to move in the solution so they will obviously carry electric current.
why does ionic compounds conduct electricty when molten? when it melts the ions are free to move , so it can carry an electric current
Which groups are most likely to form ions? groups 1&7 or 2&6
positive ions are called what? cations
negative ions are called what? anions
do metals gain or lose electrons? they lose electrons as they are electron donors
what is a covalent bond? its when the atoms share their electrons
What is the two types of covalent bonding? Simple molecules or giant structures
with simple molecules; how strong is the covalent bonds between the atoms? Very strong
With simple molecules; how strong is the intermolecular force between molecules? very weak
Why do simple molecular substances have low melting and boiling points? due to their weak intermolecular forces, so they can be easily parted from each other
Most molecular substances are what at room temperature? Gas or liquid
Why dont molecular substances conduct electricity? because they have no ions
what is the difference between giant covalent and giant ionic structures? the giant covalent structure does not have charged ions
Does giant covalent structures conduct electricity? no, not even when molten
Is giant covalent structures insoluble in water? they tend to be.
Give me an example of a giant covalent structure diamond & graphite & silica
why are metals a good conductor of heat and electricity? because of it's free electrons, which are free to move around
what is a smart material? its a material that behaves differently depending on the conditions. e.g. light intensity or temperature
What is Nitinol? its a shape memory alloy
What is a fullerene? fullerenes are nano particles and is made of molecules of carbon shaped like hollow balls or closed tubes
do fullerenes conduct electricity? yes, they have free electrons
what are nanotubes made of? they are made of lots of fullerenes joined together
what properties do nanoparticles have? they have very different properties to the original chemical its made of.
do nanotubes conduct electricity? oui :)
why do nano particles make good catalysts? because they have a huge surface area
what is molecular engineering? its when you build a product molecule-by-molecule.
what does (s) represent? solid
what does (l) represent? liquid
what does (g) represent? gas
what does (aq) represent? dissolved in water
what is relative atomic mass? its the same as the mass number of the element
Mass number is also known as? relative atomic mass
Why does some elements have a decimal for a mass number? because its the average of all the isotopes, taking into account how many of each isotope there is
how do you figure out the relative formula mass for a compound? you just add all the mass numbers up together
how do you calculate the % mass of an elements in a compound? relative atomic mass times the no. of atoms (of that element) then divid it by the total relative formula mass and times it by 100
how do you find the empirical formula (from masses or percentages)? 1)list all the elements in the compound2)underneath them write their mass or percentage3)divide each mass or percentage by the relative atomic mass for the element4)turn the numbers you get into a ratio5)get the ratio into its simplest form - done
how do you calculate masses in reactions? 1) write out the balanced equation2) work out the relative formula mass ( for the two bits you want)3) divide to get one then multiply to get all
What is a mole in standard form? 6.023x10^23
how do you figure out a mole of an atom or molecule? it will have a mass in grams equal to the relative mass for that substance
what is the formula for finding the number of moles in a given mass no. of moles= mass in grams (of element or compound) divided by the relative atomic mass (of compound or element)
what is a 1m solution? it contains one mole per litre
how do you figure out how many moles there wil be in a given volume? you times the volume in litres X moles per litre of solution
what is an atom economy? it tells you how much of the mass of the reactants ends up as useful products
what is the equation for atom economy? total relative formula mass of useful products divided by total relative formula mass of reactants ... then times by 100
What is the symbol for Relative atom mass? Ar
what is the symbol for relative formula mass? Mr
Why is high atom economy better for profits and the enviroment? 1)less waste 2)less resources needed 3) more profits due to less raw mats to buy and waste to dispose of.
what is percentage yield? it compares actual and predicted yield
what is the equation for percentage yield? actual yield (in grams) divided by predicted yeild (in grams) times by 100
what is four ways that can reduce the percentage yield? 1)the reaction might be reversible 2) filtration 3) tranferring of the liquids 4) unexpected reactions
what four things does the rate of reaction depend on? Temperature, Concentration, Catalyst, Size of particles
what are the three ways to measure the speed of a reaction? precipitation, change in mass, the volume of gas given off.
whats the equation for figuring out the rate of a reaction amount of reactants used or amount of product formed divided by time
how does higher temperatures increase collisions of the atoms? when the temp is increased the particles all move quicker. as they are moving quicker they are going to have more collisions
how does higer concentration or pressure increases collisions of the atoms? if a solution is more concentrated it means there is alot of atoms in a small space, so they are going to collide more due to lack of space
how does a larger surface area increas collisions of the atoms? If one of the reactants if a solid then breaking it up into smaller pieces will increase its surface area meaning that the particles in the solution will have more area to work on – meaning more useful collisions
how do catalysts affect the rate of reaction Catalysts increase the number of successful collisions by giving the reacting particles a surface to stick to. They increase the number of successful collisions by lowering the activation energy
what causes faster collisions Faster collisions are only caused by increasing the temperature
how does a higher temperature affect the rate of reaction At higher temperature there will be more particles colliding with enough energy to make the reaction happen. This initial energy is known as the activation energy and it’s needed to break the initial bonds
what is a catalyst A catalyst is a substance which changes the speed of a reaction without being changed or used up in reaction
what is an exothermic reaction? An exothermic reaction is one which gives out energy to the surroundings usually in the form of heat and usually shown by a rise in temperature
how does a catalyst reduce costs? Catalysts help reduce costs in industrial reactions because it reduces energy costs, reduces the temperature needed for a reaction
what is some disadvantages of using a catalyst Disadvantages of using a catalyst are that they can be expensive to buy in the first place and often need to be cleaned... even though they can be used over and over again due to the fact it is not used up in the reaction
what is a good example of an exothermic reaction Combustion is a very good example of an exothermic reaction
is a neutralisation reaction endothermic or exothermic Neutralisation reactions (acid + alkali)are exothermic
what is an endothermic reaction An endothermic reaction is one which takes in energy from its surroundings usually in the form of heat and usually shown by a fall in temperature
what is an example of an endothermic reactio Thermal decomposition is a good example of an endothermic reaction
what is a reversible reaction
if a reverisble reaction takes place in a closed system , what will happen
what is a closed system
what is a dynamic equilibrium
with a reversible reaction, the forward and backward reaction is what sort of thermic reaction?
what happens if you raise the temperature in an equilibrium
what happens if you lower the temperature in an equilibrium
does a catalyst change the equilibrium position?
what numbers does the Ph scale have
what is an acid
what does an acid form in water?
what is a base
what is an alkali
what does alkalis form in water
what is the reaction between acids and bases called?
what is the equation for adding an acid to a base?
what can neutralisation also be written as
what is the equation for adding an acid to a metal
what is the tet for hydrogen
hydrochloric acid always produces what sort of salt
sufuric acid always produces what kind of salt?
what sort metals dont react with hydrochloric acid?
Metal ___ and metal _____ are bases
if a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide dissolves in water it is called what?
will insoluble bases react with acids?
all metal oxides and metal hydroxide react with acid to form what
Acid + metal oxide ---->
Acid + metal hydroxide ---->
hydrochloric acid + copper oxide ---->
sulfuric acid + zinc oxide --->
Nitric acid + potassium hydroxide --->
are chlorides, sulfates and nitrates soluble in water?
are oxides, hydroxides and carbonates soluble in water?
how do you make soluble salts from insoluble base?
to make an insoluble salt you use what sort of reaction
precipitation reactions are used for what in water?
what is electrolysis?
what are electrolytes?
electroylsis requires what?
electrons are taken away from which side?
electrons are added from which side ?
the positive ions are called what?
the cathode is what?
the anode is what?
what are the negative ions called?
when brine is electroylses what is given off at the cathode, the anode and what is left in solution
Created by: Ska_101