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# Algebra 1

### Algebra 1 (Saxon) Vocabulary

TermDefinition
mixed number a number of the form of an integer plus a proper fraction, written without a plus sign (a sum of a whole number and a fraction) 2 1/3
straight line a mathematical line that has no width and no ends
line segment a part of a line that consists of two endpoints and all points between the endpoints
parallel lines lines in the same plane that do not intersect
perpendicular two lines which intersect at right angles (two lines that make square corners at the point of intersection)
intersect two lines that cross
point of intersection the place where two lines cross
right angle an angle whose measure is 90° (the angles made by perpendicular lines)
straight angle an angle whose measure is 180° (two right angles)
obtuse angle an angle whose measure is between 90° and 180° (an angle greater than a right angle but less than a straight angle)
acute angle an angle whose measure is between 0° and 90° (an angle smaller than a right angle)
polygon any simple, closed, planar geometric figure whose sides are line segments
side each segment of a polygon
vertex in reference to a polygon, a "corner" of a polygon (each endpoint of a side of a polygon)
concave polygon a polygon in which one or more interior angles have a measure greater than 180° (a polygon that has an indentation (a cave))
convex polygon a polygon in which all interior angles have a measure less than or equal to 180° (a polygon that does not have an indentation)
equilateral polygon a polygon whose sides all have equal length
equiangular polygon a polygon whose angles all have equal measure
regular polygon a polygon in which all sides have the same length and all angles have the same measure
tick marks lines denoting sides whose lengths are equal and angles whose measures are equal
scalene triangle a triangle that has no sides of equal length
equilateral triangle a triangle whose three sides all have equal length; each angle in an equilateral triangle has a measure of 60°
isosceles triangle a triangle that has at least two sides of equal lenght
equiangular triangle a triangle whose three angles all have equal measure; each angle in an equiangular triangle has a measure of 60°
obtuse triangle a triangle which contains an obtuse angle
acute triangle a triangle in which all the angles are acute
right triangle a triangle that has one right angle
parallelogram a quadrilateral that has two pairs of parallel sides
trapezoid a quadrilateral that has exactly two parallel lines
rectangle a parallelogram with four right angles
rhombus an equilateral parallelogram
square a rhombus with four right angles
names of polygons # of sides & names 3 triangle 4 quadrilateral 5 pentagon 6 hexagon 7 heptagon 8 octagon 9 nonagon 10 decagon 11 undecagon 12 dodecagon n n-gon
radius the distance from the center of the circle to every point on the circle
perimeter the distance around the outside of a closed, planar geometric figure
diameter in reference to a circle, the length of a chord of a circle that passes through the center of the circle (twice the length of the radius of the circle)
circumference the distance around the circle, also called the perimeter of the circle C=2πr C=Dπ
irrational number any number that cannot be written as a quotient of integers √2, π, e, ...
unit multipliers a fraction that has units and has a value of 1; used to change the units of a number 3ft/1yd = 1yd/3ft
numerator the number or quantity above the fraction bar in a fraction; the dividend in a fraction
denominator the number or quantity under the fraction bar in a fraction; the divisor in a fraction
dividend a number or quantity that is divided by another number or quantity
divisor a number or quantity that divides another number or quantify
quotient the result of dividing one number or quantity by another number or quantity
factor one of two or more numbers or quantities that are multiplied to form a product
product the result of multiplying two or more numbers or quantities
minuend the number from which another number is to be subtracted
subtrahend the number that is to be subtracted from another number
difference the result of subtracting one number or quantity from another
sum the result of adding two or more numbers or quantities
origin a beginning point On a number line or coordinate plane, the number zero is associated with the origin
number line a line divided into units of equal length, with one point chosen as the origin, or zero point
decimal system the system of numeration that uses decimal numbers
real number the set of numbers that includes all members of the set of rational numbers and all members of the set of irrational numbers
positive number the numbers to the right of zero on the number line
negative number the counterpart of a positive number
signed numbers negative and positive numbers
whole numbers any member of the set {0,1,2,3,4,...}
integers any member of the set {...-3, -2, -1,0,1,2,3,...}
commutative property for addition the order in which two real numbers are added does not affect the sum a + b = c or b + a = c
natural numbers (=counting numbers) the set of numbers that we use to count objects or things; also called the positive integers i.e. any member of the set {1,2,3,...}
1 in = _______ cm 1 ft = _______ in 1 yd = _______ ft 1 mi = _______ ft 1 cm = _______ mm 1 m = _______ cm 1 km = _______ m 1 in = 2.54 cm 1 ft = 12 in 1 yd = 3 ft 1 mi = 5280 ft 1 cm = 100 mm 1 m = 100 cm 1 km = 1000 m
area the number of square units contained in a closed figure
square unit a square having sides that measure one unit in length
altitude (height) the perpendicular distance from either the base of the triangle or an extension of the base to the opposite vertex; any one of the three sides can be designated as the base
area of rectangle length x width
area of square (length of side)²
area of triangle base x height ----------------- 2
area of circle πr²
additive inverse for any nonzero real number, the opposite of the number; The sum of any real number and its additive inverse is zero.
undefined an expression where a number is divided by 0
indeterminate zero divided by zero
commutative property for multiplication the order in which two real numbers are multiplied does not affect the product
reciprocal for any nonzero real number, the number in inverted form
multiplicative inverse for any nonzero real number, the reciprocal of the number; the product of any nonzero real number and its multiplicative inverse is 1.
symbols of inclusion parenthesis, brackets, braces, and bars; can be used to help emphasize the meaning of notation
numeral a single symbol or a collection of symbols that is used to express the idea of a particular number
numerical expression a meaningful arrangement of numerals that has a single value
value the only one number that a numerical expression represents
algebraic expression an expression obtained by combining constants and/or variables using the arithmetic operators +, -, x, or ÷
mathematical expression another name for algebraic expression
variables letters used to represent numbers
constant a quantity whose value does not change
geometric solids a geometric figure that has three dimensions
right geometric solids geometric solids whose sides are at right angles to the bases
right prism a right solid with a polygon as a base
surface area the total area of all the exposed surfaces of a geometric solid
lateral surface area the total area of the "sides" of a geometric solid
coefficient any factor or any product of factors of a product
numerical coefficient a coefficient that is a number
literal coefficient a coefficient containing only letters
term a single entity that represents or has the value of one particular number
distributive property for any real numbers a, b, c, a(b+c) = ab + ac
like terms terms that have the same variables in the same form or in equivalent forms so that the terms (excluding numerical coefficients) represent the same number regardless of the nonzero values assigned the variables
exponential notation x ∙ x ∙ x ∙ x ∙ x ∙..... ∙ x = xⁿ (n times x multiplied by itself)
base x, a real number in: xⁿ
exponent n, a positive integer in: xⁿ
power the value of an exponential expression
radical sign √ we use it to designate the positive even root