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# Algebra 1

### Algebra 1 (Saxon) Vocabulary

Term | Definition |
---|---|

mixed number | a number of the form of an integer plus a proper fraction, written without a plus sign (a sum of a whole number and a fraction) 2 1/3 |

straight line | a mathematical line that has no width and no ends |

line segment | a part of a line that consists of two endpoints and all points between the endpoints |

parallel lines | lines in the same plane that do not intersect |

perpendicular | two lines which intersect at right angles (two lines that make square corners at the point of intersection) |

intersect | two lines that cross |

point of intersection | the place where two lines cross |

right angle | an angle whose measure is 90° (the angles made by perpendicular lines) |

straight angle | an angle whose measure is 180° (two right angles) |

obtuse angle | an angle whose measure is between 90° and 180° (an angle greater than a right angle but less than a straight angle) |

acute angle | an angle whose measure is between 0° and 90° (an angle smaller than a right angle) |

polygon | any simple, closed, planar geometric figure whose sides are line segments |

side | each segment of a polygon |

vertex | in reference to a polygon, a "corner" of a polygon (each endpoint of a side of a polygon) |

concave polygon | a polygon in which one or more interior angles have a measure greater than 180° (a polygon that has an indentation (a cave)) |

convex polygon | a polygon in which all interior angles have a measure less than or equal to 180° (a polygon that does not have an indentation) |

equilateral polygon | a polygon whose sides all have equal length |

equiangular polygon | a polygon whose angles all have equal measure |

regular polygon | a polygon in which all sides have the same length and all angles have the same measure |

tick marks | lines denoting sides whose lengths are equal and angles whose measures are equal |

scalene triangle | a triangle that has no sides of equal length |

equilateral triangle | a triangle whose three sides all have equal length; each angle in an equilateral triangle has a measure of 60° |

isosceles triangle | a triangle that has at least two sides of equal lenght |

equiangular triangle | a triangle whose three angles all have equal measure; each angle in an equiangular triangle has a measure of 60° |

obtuse triangle | a triangle which contains an obtuse angle |

acute triangle | a triangle in which all the angles are acute |

right triangle | a triangle that has one right angle |

parallelogram | a quadrilateral that has two pairs of parallel sides |

trapezoid | a quadrilateral that has exactly two parallel lines |

rectangle | a parallelogram with four right angles |

rhombus | an equilateral parallelogram |

square | a rhombus with four right angles |

names of polygons | # of sides & names 3 triangle 4 quadrilateral 5 pentagon 6 hexagon 7 heptagon 8 octagon 9 nonagon 10 decagon 11 undecagon 12 dodecagon n n-gon |

radius | the distance from the center of the circle to every point on the circle |

perimeter | the distance around the outside of a closed, planar geometric figure |

diameter | in reference to a circle, the length of a chord of a circle that passes through the center of the circle (twice the length of the radius of the circle) |

circumference | the distance around the circle, also called the perimeter of the circle C=2πr C=Dπ |

irrational number | any number that cannot be written as a quotient of integers √2, π, e, ... |

unit multipliers | a fraction that has units and has a value of 1; used to change the units of a number 3ft/1yd = 1yd/3ft |

numerator | the number or quantity above the fraction bar in a fraction; the dividend in a fraction |

denominator | the number or quantity under the fraction bar in a fraction; the divisor in a fraction |

dividend | a number or quantity that is divided by another number or quantity |

divisor | a number or quantity that divides another number or quantify |

quotient | the result of dividing one number or quantity by another number or quantity |

factor | one of two or more numbers or quantities that are multiplied to form a product |

product | the result of multiplying two or more numbers or quantities |

minuend | the number from which another number is to be subtracted |

subtrahend | the number that is to be subtracted from another number |

difference | the result of subtracting one number or quantity from another |

addend | any one of a set of numbers to be added |

sum | the result of adding two or more numbers or quantities |

origin | a beginning point On a number line or coordinate plane, the number zero is associated with the origin |

number line | a line divided into units of equal length, with one point chosen as the origin, or zero point |

decimal system | the system of numeration that uses decimal numbers |

real number | the set of numbers that includes all members of the set of rational numbers and all members of the set of irrational numbers |

positive number | the numbers to the right of zero on the number line |

negative number | the counterpart of a positive number |

signed numbers | negative and positive numbers |

whole numbers | any member of the set {0,1,2,3,4,...} |

integers | any member of the set {...-3, -2, -1,0,1,2,3,...} |

commutative property for addition | the order in which two real numbers are added does not affect the sum a + b = c or b + a = c |

natural numbers (=counting numbers) | the set of numbers that we use to count objects or things; also called the positive integers i.e. any member of the set {1,2,3,...} |

1 in = _______ cm 1 ft = _______ in 1 yd = _______ ft 1 mi = _______ ft 1 cm = _______ mm 1 m = _______ cm 1 km = _______ m | 1 in = 2.54 cm 1 ft = 12 in 1 yd = 3 ft 1 mi = 5280 ft 1 cm = 100 mm 1 m = 100 cm 1 km = 1000 m |

area | the number of square units contained in a closed figure |

square unit | a square having sides that measure one unit in length |

altitude (height) | the perpendicular distance from either the base of the triangle or an extension of the base to the opposite vertex; any one of the three sides can be designated as the base |

area of rectangle | length x width |

area of square | (length of side)² |

area of triangle | base x height ----------------- 2 |

area of circle | πr² |

additive inverse | for any nonzero real number, the opposite of the number; The sum of any real number and its additive inverse is zero. |

undefined | an expression where a number is divided by 0 |

indeterminate | zero divided by zero |

commutative property for multiplication | the order in which two real numbers are multiplied does not affect the product |

reciprocal | for any nonzero real number, the number in inverted form |

multiplicative inverse | for any nonzero real number, the reciprocal of the number; the product of any nonzero real number and its multiplicative inverse is 1. |

symbols of inclusion | parenthesis, brackets, braces, and bars; can be used to help emphasize the meaning of notation |

numeral | a single symbol or a collection of symbols that is used to express the idea of a particular number |

numerical expression | a meaningful arrangement of numerals that has a single value |

value | the only one number that a numerical expression represents |

algebraic expression | an expression obtained by combining constants and/or variables using the arithmetic operators +, -, x, or ÷ |

mathematical expression | another name for algebraic expression |

variables | letters used to represent numbers |

constant | a quantity whose value does not change |

geometric solids | a geometric figure that has three dimensions |

right geometric solids | geometric solids whose sides are at right angles to the bases |

right prism | a right solid with a polygon as a base |

surface area | the total area of all the exposed surfaces of a geometric solid |

lateral surface area | the total area of the "sides" of a geometric solid |

coefficient | any factor or any product of factors of a product |

numerical coefficient | a coefficient that is a number |

literal coefficient | a coefficient containing only letters |

term | a single entity that represents or has the value of one particular number |

distributive property | for any real numbers a, b, c, a(b+c) = ab + ac |

like terms | terms that have the same variables in the same form or in equivalent forms so that the terms (excluding numerical coefficients) represent the same number regardless of the nonzero values assigned the variables |

exponential notation | x ∙ x ∙ x ∙ x ∙ x ∙..... ∙ x = xⁿ (n times x multiplied by itself) |

base | x, a real number in: xⁿ |

exponent | n, a positive integer in: xⁿ |

power | the value of an exponential expression |

radical sign | √ we use it to designate the positive even root |

radicand | the number under the radical sign |

index | the little number that designates the root |

Created by:
krisztamod