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Clinical chemisty

molecular and clinical chem

QuestionAnswer
As a separation technique, serum protein electrophoresis depends on: the ratio of the protein's charge to hydrodynamic size
A malignant neoplasm of a clone of plasma cells that diffuse throughout the body and is diagnosed by the identification of a para protein in blood or urine is: multiple myeloma
Using the reference image below, list the major electrophoresis zones in order of appearance from left to right. __1__ Albumin __4__ Beta Globulins __2__ alpha-1 __5__ Gamma Globulins __3__ Alpha-2
A nonspecific response to inflammation that includes elevation of certain plasma proteins and decreases others is referred to as: acute phase response
A paraprotein is: a monoclonal immunoglobulin
The pH at which a molecule such as a protein has a et charge of zero is referred to as the: isoelectric point
A zwitterion is a(n): ionized molecule with balanced negative and positive charges
Most proteins are synthesized: by the hepatic parenchymal cells
Analyzing proteins in cerebral spinal fluid is done to: assess permeability of the blood brain barier
The plasma protein that serves to transport a large number of compounds including bilirubin, calcium, drugs and free fatty acids is: albumin
Match the acid-base properties to its corresponding structure displayed in each image. Acidic Neutral Alkaline
The biuret reaction for protein quantification copper ions complex with peptide bonds in proteins
Children have higher ALP activity than healthy adults because: ALP leaks from osteoblasts during normal bone growth
An international unit (U) of enzyme activity is the amount of enzyme that will catalyze the reaction of: one micromole of substrate per minute
The enzymes that demostrates highest serum activity in intrahepatic biliary obstruction and is also elevated in primary liver neoplasm is: GGT
. The enzyme that is synthesized by acinar cells of the pancreas and that remains elevated in most individuals for at least one week after the onset of pancreatitis is: Lipase
Which statement(s) below is(are) correct? All of the above statements are correct
A reactant in a catalysis reaction that binds to the enzyme's active site is the: substrate
Activity of which of the following isoenzymes of CK is highest in the serum of healthy individuals? CK-MM
In the analytical enzymatic measurement of substrate, an enzyme reaction is accompanied by a change in absorbance of one component of the assay system. If this change is continuously monitored while it is occurring, the reaction is referred to as a(n): Kinetic reaction
The graph on which the plot of 1/velocity versus 1/substrate concentration is illustrated is referred to as a: Lineweaver-Burk plot
Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the reaction of glutamate and pyruvate to form 2-oxoglutarate and an amino acid? ALT
Which of the following enzymes demonstrates an increase in activity with progressive Duchenne muscular dystrophy, followed by a decrease as muscle mass decreases? CK
Measurement of decreased activity of which of the following enzymes is used to determine possible insecticide poisoning? Serum Cholinesterase
The "active center" of an enzyme is: that part of an enzyme at which substrate binding occurs
An electrophoretic separation of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes that demonstrates and elevation in LD-1 and LD-2 in a “flipped” pattern is consistent with: Myocardial infarction
A serum sample is drawn in the emergency room from a 43 year old male and the following results were obtained:Laboratory Test Patient Results Reference Range CK 185 IU/L 15-160 IU/L AST 123 IU/L 0-48 IU/L CK-MB 4% 0-5%n Crushing injury to the thigh
Every enzymatic reaction follows a specific kinetics as it proceeds from enzyme + substrate to product + enzyme. As substrate is consumed, the reaction rate decreases and becomes directly proportional to the amount of substrate that is present in low con first-order kinetics
The oxidoreductase that is increased significantly during hemolytic anemia is: Lactate dehydrogenase
The most widely used method of isoenzyme analysis that allows the best discrimination between antigenically distinct isoenzymes derived from multiple-gene loci is: an immunochemical method
In the laboratory measurement of ALP, a chromogenic assay forms the basis of almost all current methods used for ALP analysis. The substrate in this assay is 4-nitrophenyl phosphate
The Michaelis-Menten constant is: KM
An enzyme assay during which a single measurement is taken at the termination of the enzymatic reaction is referred to as a: End Point assay
The serum enzyme that demonstrates an increase in activity 4-8 hours after an attack of acute pancreatitis, peaks at 24 hours and then returns to normal within a week is: Lipase
The most widely used ionization approach coupled with gas chromatography and used for comprehensive drug screening is: electron ionization
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is typically used for: determination of trace elements
Which type of ionization technique uses an electron beam to ionize the reagent gas and produce a reactive species as a result of ion molecule reactions? chemical
The soft ionization technique that uses a UV-absorbing compound upon which the analyte of interest is placed and eventually vaporized into a plume of ions directed into the mass analyzer is: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization
which one of the following mass spectrometers does the fragmentation of ions take place after they have been separated by their mass-to-charge value in a first stage? In a tandem mass spectrometer
How is trapping-type spectrometry different from typical beam-type mass spectrometry? Trapping-type mass spectrometry uses an ion trap designed to collect ions in three dimensions instead of two dimensions as in a typical beam-type mass spectrometer
In a mass spectrometer, ion detection is typically accomplished through the use of an electron multiplier. This involves: a chain of dynodes that “multiplies” the number of electrons to provide a detectable signal.
In a mass spectrometer, the ion with the highest abundance in the mass spectrum that is assigned a relative abundance of 100% is referred to as the: base peak
Currently, the most widely used mass spectrometer, which is flexible, easy to use and relatively low cost is the: Quadrupole MS
In mass spectrometry, the sum of all the ions produced is displayed as a function of time to yield a(n): total ion chromatogram
What is the function of the vacuum system in a mass spectrometer? To keep ions from colliding during interactions with the magnetic or electric fields
Which of the following classes of mass spectrometers involves ions making a single trip through the instrument and striking a detector? Beam Type
Because of the ability to identify and quantify proteins in a complex mixture, mass spectrometry combined with separation methods is an excellent analytical tool used specifically in the field of: proteomics
In pregnancy testing, for example, the stationary phase is nitrocellulose paper and the hCG antigen is present in a urine sample, which is considered the mobile phase.The antigen in the mobile phase binds with an antibody in the stationary phase. Affinity
In column chromatography, unknown analytes are identified as the pas through a detector. Comparison of the ________ of unknown analytes with that of the internal standard is the method used for unknown identification Retention time
Which of the following statements concerning chromatography is correct: in affinity chromatography, a hormone can bind to its receptor that is coated on glass or resin beads
A highly sensitive, specific and quantitative method that uses pressure to push sample and solvent through a column is: HPLC
You are preparing placental tissue for separation and isolation of a specific enzyme. The enzyme has a negative charge, so you want to use chromatography to perform your task. Which one of the following chromatographic separation mechanisms would be Ion-exchange
Which phase of chromatography carries the sample Mobile phase
The most commonly used detector for clinical analysis of analytes after gas chromatography is a: Flame ionization
Which component of a gas chromatograph introduces as aliquot of sample to be analyzed into the column? Injector
To be analyzed by gas chromatography, a compound must e volatile or be made volatile
Spotting a specimen on a silica-coated glass plate and calculating the retention factor for migrated substances is an sample is referred to thin layer chromatography. What classification of chromatography is this? Planar
Created by: back to school