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Rhetorical terms

Audience The listener, viewer, or reader of a text
Concession An acknowledgment that an opposing argument may be true or reasonable
Connotation Meanings or associations that readers have with a word beyond its dictionary definition or denotation
Context The circumstances, atmosphere, attitudes, and events surrounding a text
Counterargument an opposing argument to the one a writer is putting forward
Ethos "character", speakers appeal to ethos to demonstrate that they are credible and trustworthy to speak on a given topic
Logos "Embodied thought", speakers appeal to logos, or reason, by
Occasion The time and place a speech is given or a piece is written
Pathos Suffering or experience; speakers appeal to pathos to emotionally motivate their audience
Persona "mask"; The face or character that a speaker shows to his or her audience
Polemic "hostile," an aggressive argument that tries to establish the superiority of one opinion over all others
Propaganda The spread of ideas and information to further a cause
Purpose The goal the speaker wants to achieve
refutation a denial of the validity of an opposing argument - refutations often follow a concession that acknowledges that an opposing argument may be true or reasonable
rhetoric term defined by Aristotle, "The faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion" - or the art of finding ways to persuade an audience
Rhetorical appeals
Rhetorical triangle A diagram that illustrates the interrelationship among the speaker, audience, and subject in determining a text
SOAPS a mnemonic device that stands for Subject, Occasion, Audience, Purpose, and Speaker - handy way to remember the various elements that make up the rhetorical situation
speaker The person or group who creates a text
subject the topic of a text. What the text is about
text Any cultural product that can be "read" or generally means the written word
Alliteration Repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases
Allusion brief reference to a person, event, or place or to a work of art
Anaphora repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or lines
antimetabole repetition of words in reverse order
antithesis opposition, or contrast, of ideas or words in a parallel construction
archaic diction old-fashioned or outdated choice of words
asyndeton omission of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words
cumulative sentence sentence that completes the main idea at the beginning of the sentence and then builds and adds on
hortative sentence sentence that exhorts, urges, entreats, implores, or calls to action
imperative sentence sentence used to command or enjoin
inversion inverted order of words in a sentence
Juxtaposition placement of two things closely together to emphasize similarities or differences
metaphor figure of speech that compares two things without using like or as
oxymoron paradoxical juxtaposition of words that seem to contradict one another
parallelism similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses
periodic sentence sentence whose main clause is withheld until the end
personification attribution of a lifelike quality to an inanimate object or an idea
rhetorical question figure of speech in the form of a question posed for rhetorical effect rather than for the purpose of getting an answer
synedoche figure of speech that uses a part to represent the whole
zeugma use of two different words in a grammatically similar way that produces different, often incongruous, meanings
Chiasmus two or more clauses are balanced against each other by the reversal of their structures
Epistrophe the repetition of phrases or words at the ends of the clauses or sentences.
Hypophora figure of speech in which a writer raises a question, and then immediately provides an answer to that question.
Apostrophe a punctuation mark used to indicate either possession or the omission of letters or numbers
Irony the expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect.
Pun word play that exploits multiple meanings of a term, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect
Litotes a figure of speech that employs an understatement by using double negatives or, in other words, a positive statement expressed by negating its opposite expressions.
Paradox statement or proposition that when investigated or explained may prove to be well founded or true.
Created by: Nblakely



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