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3U Chem Unit 1

Diatomic molecule When an element cannot exist by itself but must bond with another atom or with itself (eg. oxygen)
Standard State State of matter (solid, liquid or gas) of an element at room temperature.
Ionization energy Amount of energy required to pull off one electron from an atom
Electron Affinity Amount of energy released when one electron is added to a neutral atom
Electronegativity The ability of an atom to attract shared electrons in covalent bonds
Atomic radius measured in picometers; shows the distance between the centre of the nucleus of an atom and its valence shell
isotopes have same number of protons and electrons, but different number of neutrons
average atomic mass weighted average of the masses of all isotopes of that element
Oxoacids composed of hydrogen, oxygen + other atoms eg. H2SO4
Zeff how effective the protons in the nucleus are at attracting valence electrons (effectiveness decreases as number of inner shielding electrons increases)
Bases compounds that separate in water to release a hydroxide ion (OH- ion)
Acids compounds that separate in water to release a hydrogen ion (H+ ion)
nonpolar covalent bond if the electrons are equally shared
Temperature average kinetic energy of the particles
Kinetic Molecular Theory all matter is made of particles that are MOVING, SEPARATED BY SPACE, and SPEED UP when heated
Physical property an aspect of matter that can be observed or measured without changing it
Chemical property may only be observed by changing the chemical identity of a pure substance
polar covalent bond if the difference in electronegativity is between the two atoms sharing a bond is 0.41-1.7
ionic bond if the difference in electronegativity is between the two atoms is greater than 1.7 then there is a transfer of electrons from the metal to the nonmetal. Electrons are NOT shared.
dissociates what happens to an ionic solid when it dissolves in water...it separates into its component ions
Created by: jcepella