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Chemistry Definition

TermDefinition
Matter Anything the occupies space and has mass
Diffusion The spreading of materials due to the movement of their particles.
Sublimation When a solid turns directly into a gas
Melting Point The temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid
Boiling Point The temperature at which a liquid changes to gas throughout the liquid.
Evaporation The changing of a liquid to a gas at the surface of the liquid.
Condensation The changing of a gas to a liquid
Element A substance that cannot be spilt into simpler substances by chemical means. Contains only 1 atoms.
Compounds A substance that is made up of two or more element combined together chemically. Contains two or more atoms
Mixture Consists of two or more atoms mingled with each other but not chemically combined
Solvent A substance that dissolves other materials to form a solution
Solute A substance that dissolves in a solvent
Solution The mixture of a solute and solvent.
Suspension A mixture in which small solid/liquid particles are suspended in a liquid/gas
Dilute solution Small amount of solute. Large amount of solvent
Concentrated Large amount of solute. Small amount of solvent.
Saturated Solution Contains as much dissolved solute as possible at a given temperature
Solubility The mass of substance that will dissolve in 100g of solvent at a fixed temperature
Solubility Curve A graph showing the solubility of a substance a different temperatures
Crystal A solid regular shape. The particles inside the crystal are arranged in a regular pattern.
Crystallisation The formation of crystals when a hot saturated substance is cooled.
Filtration A method of separating an insoluble solid from a liquid using a material that slows the liquid to pass through but not the solid.
Filtrate The liquid that has been filtered
Residue The solid remaining on the filter paper
Distillation The vapourising of a liquid by boiling it and then condensing the vapour by cooling it
Distillate The purified liquid produced by condensing the vapour during distillation
Paper chromatography A method of separating mixtures of substances in solution
Chromatogram The strip of paper on which the parts of a mixture have been separated by chromatography
Indicator A compound that shows us by means of colour change whether something is and acid or a base. E.g litmus paper
Atom Smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element
Atomic Number Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. This is also the number of electrons in the atom
Mass number Number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Periodic Table And arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number
Molecule A group of atoms joined together. It is the smallest particle of an element or compound that can exist independently. E. G water
Ions Charged atoms
Iconic Bonding The force of attraction between the positive and negative charges binds the ions together
Covalent Bonding Bonding that consists of shared electrons. This happens when neither of the elements wants to lose an electron
Neutralisation The reaction between ans acid and à base. Forms a salt and water
Acid Rain Rain water with a pH of less than 5.5
Sustainability The conservation of balances in the world ecology indefinitely
Sustainable Development Development that means of the present are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Fuel Any substance that burns in oxygen to produce heat
Fossil Fuels Fuels that were formed from the remains of plants and animals from millions of years ago
Hydrocarbons Compounds consisting of only hydrogen and carbon. When burned CO2 and water are formed
Biofuels Fuels made from plants
Greenhouse Effect The natural trapping of the suns energy by the atmosphere
Enhanced Greenhouse Effect Increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that is causing the earth to become warmer.
Pollution The addition of harmful substances to the environment in quantities greater than can be dealt with efficiently by the environment itself.
Exothermic Reaction Gives out heat. Eg Respiration
Endothermic Reaction Takes in heat. Eg photosynthesis
Effective collision One that results in the formation of new products
Activation Energy The minimum energy that colliding particles must have in order for effective collision to take place ( a reaction to occur)
Energy Profile Diagrams A graph that shows the change in energy in a chemical reaction with time as the reaction takes place
Chemical Reaction A change that results in the formation of one or more new substances
Law of Conservation of Mass When a chemical reaction occurs, the total mass of the reactants is always equal to the total mass of the products.
Rate of Reaction Change in concentration per unit time of any one reactant or product
Catalyst A substance that alters the rate of a chemical reaction but is not used up in the reaction
Lustrous Shiny
Ductile Can be stretched
Malleable Can be beaten into various shape
Metal An element that tends to form positive ions
Non metal An element that tends to form negative ions
Alloy A mixture of metals
Rusting A chemical reaction in which iron is change into a new substance (rust-iron oxide)
Created by: Ak0406