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chem popquiz (24-30)

TermDefinition
(simple) distillation separating homogeneous mixtures in liquid form by raising the temperature until the more volatile component evaporates; the vapor is collected, cooled, and condensed into the pure liquid
fractional distillation used when several liquids in the mixture have similar boiling points; beads in a column, bottom heated, top cool, more volatile escape and vaporize
fractional crystallization used to purify a solid with a small impurity;mixture is dissolved in hot solvent then slowly cooled
chromatography used to separate complex mixtures; based on differing interactions of each component in the mixture with a stationary liquid/solid phase;
paper chromatography a drop of the mixture to be separated is put on paper, paper is placed in solvent
column, gas more advanced forms of chromatography that allow larger amounts of a chemical to be separated and collected
subatomic particles smaller particles that make up atoms
protons, neutrons two types of subatomic particle found in the nucleus
nucleus dense central core of the atom
electrons orbit the nucleus in unpredictable paths
Sir Humphry Davy, Michael Faraday chemists who used electricity to decompose chemical compounds
Deorge stoney proposed that units of electrical charge-negatively charged particles-were associated with atoms
electrons what Stoney named the theoretical particles
cathode negatively charged electrode
anode positive electrode
Julius Plucker first to discover cathode rays
cathode rays phenomenon where gas left between cathode and anode glows;
Sir William Crookes designed an improved tube in which the cathode rays missed the anode and struck the end of the tube instead, causing it to glow
J. J. Thomson demonstrated that cathode rays are composed of negatively charged particles
Robert Millikan performed an experiment in which he used x-rays to knock electrons off atoms in oil droplets and measured how fast the charged droplets fell in an electric field
Eugen Goldstein showed that a CRT produces not only negative rays, but also positive rays flowing in the opposite direction
canal rays positive rays in a CRT that pass through the holes in the cathode and produce a fluorescent glow
Wilhelm Wien helped Thomson discover protons
protons positively charged particles in the canal rays
Ernest Rutherford proved that all matter has protons
plum-pudding model Thomson's idea of the atom as a sphere of positive charge with embedded electrons
Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden disproved Thomson's plum-pudding model
Rutherford proposed that atoms had a nucleus containing most of the mass and all of the positive charge; electrons orbit the nucleus
planetary model Rutherford's model of the atom
Sir James Chadwick demonstrated Rutherford's theory of a neutral particle
neutron neutral particle in the atom
quarks supposedly make up the protons and neutrons
up and down two types of quark
1/3 a quark is how much of a proton/neutron's mass
+2/3 up quark charge
-1/3 down quark charge
Created by: tatianaprince