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chem q3 (17-22)

2.1

TermDefinition
ex nihilo out of nothing
matter anything that occupies space and has mass
state forms of matter (general term)
temperature most important factor that determines the state of matter
kinetic energy energy of motion; related to the effect of temperature on the state of matter
temperature an indirect measurement of the particles' average kinetic energy
solid, liquid, gas, plasma four states of matter
solid definite shape and volume; difficult to compress; particles close together and rigid
melting point temperature at which the particles have enough kinetic energy to break loose from their rigid positions
liquid shape of its container; definite volume; difficult to compress; particles close but free to move
boiling point temperature at which the particles gain enough energy to break away from each other
gas no definite shape; no definite volume; easy to compress; particles far apart
plasma hot gas in which atoms are partially broken down to form charged particles
ions charged particles
plasma (stars) most common state of matter
substance form of matter with unique properties that make it different from every other substance
atoms smallest particles that make up a substance
elements substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means; composed of a single type of atom
periodic table of the elements on which the elements are arranged based on their properties
molecules groups of two or more atoms that are linked by chemical bonds to form distinct units
diatomic elements elements that exist as molecules composed of two atoms
atomic symbol unique to each element; abbreviations of English or Latin names
Jons Jakob Berzelius introduced a system in which the elements are symbolized by letters instead of pictorial symbols
8 how many elements make up earth
oxygen most abundant element by mass
iron most abundant element in the entire earth
hydrogen most abundant element in the universe as a whole (75%)
10 how many elements make up 99.8% of the human body
compound a substance that can be decomposed by chemical means into simpler substances; combination of elements
formula grouping of symbols that tells what types of atoms compose the compounds and the number of each type of atom in one molecule of the compound
pure substances have definite compositions the relative amounts of each element in a given compound are unchangeable
homogenous composed of the same kind of matter throughout a sample
mixture substance made of two or more pure substances that are physically mixed but not chemically combined
solutions homogeneous mixtures aka; can be separated into simpler substances by physical meants
heterogeneous mixture consists of pure substances that are incompletely mixed
phase a homogeneous part of a system that is in contact with but physically distinct from other parts of the system
phase each component in a heterogeneous mixture
Democritus Greek scholar that proposed that matter consists of tiny particles; thought particles of water were smooth and round, particles of iron were rough and jagged
atomos "indivisible" "uncut"what Democritus called the particles that make up matter
John Dalton proposed a more extensive model of the atom
differences in the atoms of the elements. 4) The atoms of the elements combined in a compound are combined in a definite ratio. 5) A chemical reaction is the result of rearrangement, combination, or separation of atoms. ATOMIC THEORY 1) Every element consists of tiny, indivisible, indestructible particles called atom. 2) All of the atoms of a particular element have the same size, mass, and chemical behavior. 3) Differences in properties of elements result from
chemical reaction result of rearrangement, combination, or separation of atoms
law of definite composition first basic law explained by Dalton's theory; ratios of the masses of each element in a given compound are always the same
a compound always has the same composition and the same properties no matter what law of definite composition restated
law of multiple proportions when two elements can combine to form more than one compound, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed amount of the other element are in a ratio of small whole numbers
Created by: tatianaprince