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holt modernchem ch.6

bond energy the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms
bond length the distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy, that is, the average distance between two bonded atoms
chemical bond a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together
chemical formula a formula that indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numericalsubscripts
covalent bonding a chemical bond resulting from the sharing of an electron pair between two atoms
diatomic molecule a molecule containing only two atoms
dipole equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance
dipole-dipole force a force of attraction between polar molecules
double bond a covalent bond produced by the sharing of two pairs of electronsbetween two atoms
ductility the ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through asmall opening to produce a wire
electron-dot notation an electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element’s symbol
formula unit the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound’s formula can be established
hybrid orbitals orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom
hybridization the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies onthe same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies
hydrogen bonding the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair ofelectrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule
intermolecular force the force of attraction between molecules
ionic bonding the chemical bond resulting from electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions
ionic compound a compound composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal
lattice energy the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
Lewis structure a formula in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and innershell electrons, dot-pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols representelectron pairs in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbolrepresent unshared electrons
London Dispersion Force an intermolecular attraction resulting from thec onstant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles
lone pair a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
malleability the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets
metallic bonding chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons
molecular compound a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
molecular formula a formula showing the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound
molecular polarity the uneven distribution of molecular charge
molecule a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds
multiple bond a double or triple bond
nonpolar-covalent bond a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution ofelectrical charge
octet rule chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupiedenergy level
polar having an uneven distribution of charge
polar-covalent bond a covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons
polyatomic ion a charged group of covalently bonded atoms
resonance the bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly representedby a single Lewis structure
single bond a covalent bond produced by the sharing of one pair of electronsbetween two atoms
structual formula a formula that indicates the kind, number, arrangement, andbonds but not the unshared electron pairs of the atoms in a molecule
triple bond a covalent bond produced by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms
unshared pair a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
VSEPR Theory repulsion between the sets of valence-level electrons surrounding an atom causes these sets to be oriented as far apart aspossible
Ionic compounds have (low, high) melting points high
boxes are used to demonstrate ______ sharing
unshared electrons exert a very powerful repulsive force.
what determines bond length potential energy
Created by: coolkidale