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Answer Question
compounds or elements substances may either be
compounds or elements matter may either be
macroscopic properties substances and mixtures can be distinguished by their
sub-microscopic composition macroscopic properties can be explained by their
molecule atoms may combine to form
compounds or elements substances may either be
substances or mixtures matter may either be
compounds or elements substances may either be
substances or mixtures matter may either be
macroscopic properties substances and mixtures can be distinguished by their
sub-microscopic composition macroscopic properties can be explained by their
molecule atoms may combine to form
electrons atoms may lose or gain
protons, neutrons, electron atom is composed of three basic parts
neutrons have no charge
primal matter all matter is made of
thales He thought that water is primal matter, perhaps because water is found everywhere
Anaximenes thought that air is primal matter
heraclitus fire must be primal since it represents the changing world.
aristotle A well-respected philosopher who proposed that all substances are composed of four elements -- fire, air, water and earth -- invarious proportions.
Democritus and Leuccipus They proposed that all things are composed of very small bits of matter that cannot be further divided (atom)
atomos indivisible
john dalton A brilliant scientist who put together many observations and results of numerous experiments made by other scientists and formulated the ATOMIC THEORY.
atomic theory 1. All matter is composed of indivisible and indestructible atoms which are tiny, hard spheres
atomic theory 2. All atoms of any one element are identical; the atoms of different elements are different and have different properties (including masses).
atomic theory 3. When matter undergoes changes, whether physical or chemical, the atoms are merely rearranged. No atom is created or destroyed
atomic theory Atoms of different elements combine in a definite ratio of small whole numbers to form compounds which are composed of compound atoms
atomic number number of protons of an atom distinguishes an element from others
protons and neutrons an atom has an equal number of
proton and neutron composes the nucleus
mass of the nucleus the mass of an atom is determined by the
different number of neutrons atoms have the same number of protons but
isotopes atoms having the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
electron lightest subatomic particle
neutron heaviest subatomic particle
neutrons and protons subatomic particles that almost have the same mass
mass number Number of protons and neutrons
atomic masses average of all occurring isotopes of that element
Law of Definite Proportion or Composition Compounds have a definite composition, regardless of how the samples were prepared or where they originated
isomers Two different molecules that have the same chemical formula
Law of Conservation of Mass "During a physical or chemical change, the total mass of all substances before and the total mass of all the substances after the change are the same"
Law of Multiple Proportions " When two or more elements form more than one compound, the ratio of the masses of one element that combine with a given mass of another element in the different compounds is a ratio of small whole numbers"
Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) He discovered that the muscles of dead frogs twitched when struck by a spark. He was a pioneer in modern obstetrics, and discovered that muscle and nerve cells produce electricity
subatomic particles smaller particles atoms consist of
Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) He was an Italian physicist known especially for the development of the electric battery in 1800.
Sir Humphrey Davy (1778-1829) He discovered that some compounds like potassium carbonate decomposed when electricity was passed through them and when molten or in solution.
Michael Faraday (1791-1867) He measured the masses of the elements produced and found these to be proportional to the quantity of electricity passed through the sample.
Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) He was a Swedish chemist and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry. The Arrhenius equation and the lunar crater Arrhenius are named after him.
George Stoney (1826-1911) Stoney's most important scientific work was the conception and calculation of the magnitude of the atom or particle of electricity, for which he coined the term "electron".
Sir Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940) He measured the charge-to-mass ratio of the particles in the cathode ray and found to be the same whatever metal was used as cathode or whatever gas was present in the tube
J.J Thomson used a cathode ray tube to deduce the presence of a negatively charged particle
cathode ray tube pass electricity through a gas that is contained at a very low pressure
Sir William Crookes (1832-1919) He discovered a previously unknown element with a bright green emission line in its spectrum and named the element thallium, from the Greek thallos, a green shoot. Crookes also identified the first known sample of helium.
Robert Andrews Millikan (1868-1953) His experiments resulted in the measurement of the charge of the electron end the calculation of its mass.
Eugene Goldstein (1850-1930) He found an evidence of the existence ,of protons when he performed experiments using tubes containing different gases at very low pressures an a tube with a perforated cathode.
Sir James Chadwick (1891-1974) He was an English physicist and Nobel laureate who is best known for discovering the neutron.
fermions and bosons fundamental particles are classified into two main groups
Fermions particles of matter
bosons particles that transmit forces
Sir Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) He was a nuclear physicist who became known as the "father" of nuclear physics. He pioneered the orbital theory of the atom through his discovery of Rutherford scattering off the nucleus with his gold foil experiment.
nucleus it is small, dense, and positively charged
Neils Bohr (1885-1962) A Danish physicist who assumed that the prevailing laws of physics at that time were not sufficient to describe the atom
Marie Curie (1867-1934) She was a Polish-French physicist and chemist and a pioneer in the field of radioactivity
Pierre Curie (1859-1906) He was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity
Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) He was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and one of the discoverers of radioactivity
nuclide atom of a specific isotope
ions when atoms lose or gain electrons
cations when atoms lose electrons
anions when atoms gain electrons
monoatomic ions making up of only one type of atom
polyatomic ions making up of more than one type of atom
Mole is the amount of a substance that contains as many elementary entities
Avogdro's number 6.022 x 10^23
Molar mass Is the mass of one mole of a substance
Unit Formula empirical formula of any ionic or covalent network solid compound used as an independent entity for stoichiometric calculations
Unit Formula It is the lowest whole number ratio of ions represented in an ionic compound
atomic mass the mass of the atom in atomic mass units
stoichiometry relationship between mass, number of moles and number of particles (Mole-Mass Relationship)
mole ratio the ratio of one material in a chemical equation to another material in the same equation
moles=mass x 1 mol/molar mass formula if mass is known, number of moles is unknown
Mass=mole x molar mass/1mol formula if number of moles is known; mass is unknown
Mass-mass Relationship The unknown mass of one substance can be calculated from the known mass of another of another substance.
formula for finding mass Mass A=Moles A/Molar Mass A X no.of moles B(mole ratio from chem. eq.)/no. of moles A x molar mass B/mol B
Empirical formula Simplest formula that gives the smallest whole-number ratio of the elements in a formula
Empirical formula can be determined from the percentage composition of the compound
molecular formula True formulas of the molecules
molecular formula Shows the exact number of atoms of each element in a molecule. Ex: H2
percent composition by mass formula % composition = (n x molar mass of element)/molar mass of compound x 100
empirical formula from percent composition % to g x 1 mol/molar mass of element
Chemical formulas to express the composition of molecules and ionic compounds in terms of chemical symbols
Structural formula H-H is called?
molecular formulas and empirical formulas Types of chemical formulas
Allotrope One of two or more distinct forms of an element Ex: two allotropic forms of carbon: diamond, graphite
ball-and-stick models and space-filling models Two standard types of molecular models
Zero Sum of the the sum of the charges on the cation and anion in each formula unit
Linear Geometry with 2 electric pairs
Trigonal planar Geometry with 3 electric pairs
Tetrahedral Geometry with 4 electric pairs
Trigonal bipyramidal Geometry with 5 electric pairs
Octahedral Geometry with 6 ĂŠelectric pairs
Change-cross technique Technique used for writing chemical formulas
based on the element How are monoatomic ions named?
naming a monoatomic cation When naming, unchanged. If an element can form two ions of different charges, the name, which is usually derived from its Latin name, is modified by the suffix -ic for the ion with the higher charge, and -ous for that with the lower charge.
naming a monoatomic anion the name of the element is modified by the suffix -ide.
Naming Polyatomic Ions containing oxygen atoms are named based on the root word of the central (or non-oxygen) atom and the suffix -ate (more oxygen atoms) and -ite (less oxygen atom)
Acetate ion C_2 H_3
oxalate ion C_2O_4^2
chemical formula can represent the composition of a molecule or an ion. consists of symbols of the atoms making up the molecule ex: O_2 - Oxygen Gas
Molecular formula gives the composition of the molecule, in terms of the actual number of atoms present ex: C6H12O6
Empirical Formula gives the composition of the molecule, in terms of the smallest ratio of the number of atoms present. ex: CH2O
Binary compounds compounds composed of two elements
Ionic compounds made up of a cation and an anion. They are named by giving the name of the cation first, followed by the name of the anion. ex: NaI - sodium iodide
Molecular compounds made up of two non-metals. They are named by giving the name of the first nonmetal and then that of the second nonmetal modified by the ending -ide. They are usually gases ex: HCl - hydrogen chloride
Ternary compounds made up of three elements. The naming follows the same rule as that of the binary ionic compound: the name of the cation is given first, followed by the name of the anion. ex : NaNO3 - sodium nitrate
Acids yield hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions
Binary acids composed of hydrogen and another element, usually a nonmetal.
Ternary acids made up of hydrogen and an anion, usually containing oxygen. Name = (root name of element) -ic (or -ous) + acid ex: HNO3 - nitric acid
formula to compound the total positive charges of the cations should be equal to the total of the negative charges of the anion. The net charge should be zero. ex: Silver nitrate - AgNO3
Created by: Kyle2104



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