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# Unit 1: Energy

### Energy: Types, Forms and Transformations

TermDefinition
Energy The capability to cause any change in the State of Matter, Its relevant motion, and /or change in the Molecular Bonds between atoms. Commonly described as "the ability to do Work."
Potential Energy Energy stored due to it's location (between Chemical Bonds), Position (Height elevated from a gravity source) or the Shape of the matter (Elasticity-like in springs or bent wood).
Kinetic Energy Energy of all motion of particles within any sample of matter, or displacement of the matter ( a change in its position)
Heat The transfer Thermal Energy from one location to another as a wave moving always from an object of Higher Temperature to a object of Lower Temperature.
Temperature The measure of the average overall movement of particles within a sample of matter. Temperature is a form of Kinetic Energy. Higher temperatures result in faster and more vigorous vibrations between particles.
Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) Energy that is stored and increased as increase the height that any mass is lifted. GPE = (h)(m)(g) where h = height in meters, m = mass in Newtons, g is the value of the Gravitational Constant on Earth which is 9.8 meters per second squared.
Chemical Potential Energy Energy stored within the Chemical Bonds of Matter. When bonds are either broken or made energy is released.
Elastic Potential Energy Energy stored/built up due to the deformation. Such as in a spring. The relationship is seen as F = - kx when F is Elastic Potential, k is the spring constant (a standard that is given for each spring) x is the displacement (how far was it stretched.
Displacement The distance created by movement or deformation of matter.
Electromagnetic Energy Energy of moving Electrons through a closed path called a circuit. This is a form of Kinetic Energy.
Light Energy All forms of Radiation (movement of Electromagnetic Waves). This is a form of Kinetic Energy
Nuclear Energy The most efficient and powerful forms of energy. Nuclear Energy is the energy stored within the nuclei of atoms. This is called the "Strong Nuclear Force" and used in some power plants.
Force The use of energy to apply a "push or pull" on the surface of an object.
Pressure Force applied by gases to their containers, or objects that press against one another. Such as a balloon full of air or you pushing against a wall.
Created by: JDBELL Science

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