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Chapter 1.2

Matter and Its Properties

Mass Measure of the amount of matter Can be measured with a triple beam balance
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space (has volume)
Atom Smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element
Element Pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one kind of atom
Compound Substance that can be broken down into simpler, stable substances (by chemical means). Made of 2 or more elements that have been chemically combined,
Extensive Property Property that depends on the amount of matter that is present. Examples: mass or volume
Intensive Property Property that does NOT depend on the amount of matter present. Examples: boiling point, density, ability to conduct heat
Physical Property Characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance. Boiling point, melting point, density, malleability (ability to shape), and viscosity (ability to pour).
Physical Change A change in a substance that does not involve a change the identity of the substance. Examples: Grinding, cutting, melting and boiling.
Change of State Change of a substance from one state of matter to another. Changes of state are also called phase changes and they are PHYSICAL CHANGES.
Solid Matter that has a definite shape and volume. Keeps shape regardless of container. Particles held close together by strong attractive force and vibrate in place.
Liquid Matter that has a definite volume but an indefinite shape. Takes the shape of its container. Close together but can flow past one another. Can overcome force of attraction between them.
Gas Matter that has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape. Takes shape of the container AND expands to fill container. Composed of rapidly moving particles that are farther apart, so the attractive forces between them has less effect.
Plasma The 4th state of matter in which atoms lose most of their electrons. This is the most abundant form of matter.
Chemical Property
Chemical Change
Chemical Reaction
Pure Substance