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English 7 - 1.1

English 7 - 1.1 Parts of Speech

communication the exchange of thoughts, opinions, or information through speech or writing
unclear pronoun reference a pronoun that does not have a clear antecedent
a noun can be *subject of a sentence *object of a prepositional phrase *an object of the verb in the sentence
noun a word used to identify people, places, things, and ideas
common noun *a general name for a person, place, thing, or idea *examples: men, country, book, team
proper noun *a general name for a person, place, thing, or idea *examples: Uncle Buddy, Spain, The Outsiders, Medford Renegades
concrete noun *names something that can be seen, heard, smelled, touched, or tasted *Examples of concrete nouns include the following: movie, thunder, perfume, puppy, and milkshake
abstract noun names an idea, feeling, quality, or characteristic, such as patriotism, courage, beauty, grief, and humor
collective noun *names a group of people or things. *Examples of collective nouns include flock, family, team, congregation, and class
Collective nouns are usually treated as _________________________. singular nouns in sentences. *example, in the sentence, “The flock of birds is flying south,” flock is the singular subject, and is flying is the singular verb.
Count nouns can be made _____________. plural.
Noncount nouns ___________ be made plural. cannot
examples of non count nouns examples of non count nouns
pronoun a word that replaces a noun in a sentence
personal pronouns ones that refer to people or things
examples of personal pronouns I, me, you, he, him, she, her, it, we, us, they, and them
antecedent the word to which a pronoun refers
unclear pronoun reference when it is not clear to whom the pronoun refers
indefinite pronoun one that does not refer to a specific person, place, or thing
singular indefinite pronouns anything, everyone, nobody, someone, something, and each
Indefinite pronouns that are always plural are.... both, few, many, others, and several
if an indefinite pronoun is the subject of a sentence, it must agree with the _____ in number. verb. (Singular indefinite pronouns must have singular verbs; plural indefinite pronouns must have plural verbs.)
verb is a word that shows action or state of being
action verb *words that show mental or physical action *swim, write, complete, send, and believe
Often, an action verb is accompanied by a ________ ________. helping verb
example helping verbs did, must, was, will, and could
action verb + helping verb = verb phrase
Linking verbs (or state-of-being verbs) connect the subject to a noun or adjective in the predicate
most frequently used linking verb is a form of the verb be (am, is, are, was, were)
adjective is a word that modifies or describes a noun or pronoun
predicate adjective * adjective that follows a verb in a sentence *"Your hat is lovely" lovely is the predicate adjective that describes hat
articles *adjectives that identify nouns *a, an, the
adverb word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
Adverb Modifying a Verb Emma stared longingly at the box of chocolates on the table. (The adverb longingly describes how Emma stared.)
Adverb Modifying an Adjective Antonio was very surprised when he was recognized as MVP. (The adverb very modifies the predicate adjective surprised.)
Adverb Modifying Another Adverb Marcia danced quite gracefully in her performance. (The adverb quite modifies the adverb gracefully, which describes how Marcia danced.)
preposition a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence
example of a preposition “The box under the bed contains old photographs,” the word under is a preposition showing the relationship between the noun bed and the word box.
conjunction connects words and phrases in a sentence
three types of conjunctions coordinating, correlative, and subordinating
coordinating conjunctions *words that connect two or more parts of a sentence together *and, but, or, nor, for, yet, and so *Maggie’s favorite colors are blue and purple.
correlative conjunctions *pairs of words that connect words and phrases in a sentence *both . . . and, either . . . or, neither . . . nor, and not only . . . but also *Both the president of our club and the vice president are sick today.
interjection *a word or phrase that expresses emotion in a sentence but does not have any grammatical connection to the rest of the sentence *Wow! It snowed eight inches last night! (“Wow” is followed by an exclamation point.)
Created by: kara0601



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