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BJ Chem Ch 8 Vocab

BJ Chem Ch 8 Vocabulary Terms and Reaction Types

Represents the number of electrons that an atom in a compound must gain or lose to return to its netral state. oxidation number
Covalently bonded groups of atoms that carry a charge. polyatomic ion
IUPAC systematic way of naming compounds following rules nomenclature
Covalent compounds made up of two (binary) elements. binary covalent compound
Use of Greek prefixes to indicate the number of each of the atoms in a binary covalent compound. Greek prefix system
Anions which contain oxygen and one other anion (e.g., ClO3- chlorate) oxyanion
A compound made up of a cation and an anion where either or both is a polyatomic ion. polyatomic ionic compound
Newer system of naming compounds containing metals with more than one oxidation state (e.g., iron II or iron III) Stock system
Used for the stock system to indicate the oxidation state of the metal. Roman numeral system
Compounds that hold a characteristic amount of water in their crystalline structure. hydrate
Compounds without any water in their crystalline structure. anhydrous
Acids containing hydrogen and one other element. binary acid
Expressions which contain information on a reaction including reactants, products, etc. chemical equation
Communicates all the substances involved in a chemical reaction but no information as to amounts. word equation
Substances present before a reaction reactant
Substances present after a reaction product
Chemical equations that follow the law of mass conservation. balanced chemical equation
Reactions which can occur forward or backward as indicated by a double arrow or a single arrow with two arrow heads. reversible reaction
When a solid falls out of a solution it is called a ___________________. precipitate
A substance that changes the rate of the reaction but does not undergo permanent changes themselves. catalyst
Combine two or more substances: A + B --> C synthesis reaction
Breaks down a substance into two or more substances: AB --> A + B decomposition reaction
A reactive element replaces a less reactive element. AB + C --> AC + B single replacement reaction
Two partners switch partners: AB + CD --> AD + BC double replacement reaction
Ions which occur in both the reactants and products spectator ion
The ionic equation minus spectator ions. It only shows the ions that react to form compound(s). net ionic equation
Acid which has three elements: hydrogen, oxygen, and another nonmetal. ternary acid
An equation which shows all the ions of both the reactants and products, including the spectator ions. ionic equation
List of elements in order of reactivity activity series
Li, K, Ba, SR, Ca, and Na are (more/less) reactive than Co, Ni, SN, and Pb more
I2 is (more/less) than Cl2 less
Alkali metals always have a ____ oxidation number. +1
Alkaline-earth metals always have a ____ oxidation number +2
Hydrogen usually has a ___ oxidation number when bonded to a nonmetal and a ___ oxidation number when bonded to a metal. +1, -1
Oxygen always has an oxidation number of -2 unless bonded to ________________ and in the peroxide ion. flourine
Halogens generally have an oxidation number of _____ when bonded to metals. -1
The halogen which always has an oxidation number of -1 is ____________ flourine
free atoms have an oxidation number of ____ 0
ions have an oxidation number equal to their ______ charge
The sum of all oxidation numbers in compounds must equal ____ zero
Reaction Type: Oxygen can be driven out of metal oxides and chlorates decomposition
Reaction Type: Water is electrolyzed decomposition
Reaction Type: Metal hydroxides release gaseous water when heated decomposition
Reaction Type: Metal carbonates release carbon dioxide when heated decomposition
Reaction Type: Some acids release carbon dioxide and water when heated decomposition
Reaction Type: hydrates release heir water molecules when heated sufficiently decomposition
Reaction Type: Atoms of active metals can replace less active ions from solutions and compounds single replacement (cationic)
Reaction Type: Reactive halogens can replace less reactive halogens that are in solution single replacement (anionic)
Reaction Type: Metals and nonmetals other than oxygen form compounds called salts. synthesis
Reaction Type: Metals combine with oxygen to form metallic oxides synthesis
Reaction Type: Nonmetals react with oxygen to form oxides synthesis
Reaction Type: water and metal oxides form metal hydroxides synthesis
water and nonmetal oxides combine to form oxyacids synthesis
Created by: MArCHChemBJ