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# Waves

### A stack of terms related to waves for Grade 11 Physics (SPH3U).

TermDefinition
wave a transfer of energy over a distance, in the form of a disturbance
periodic motion motion that occurs when the vibration, or oscillation, of an object is repeated in equal time intervals
transverse vibration occurs when an object vibrates perpendicular to its axis
longitudinal vibration occurs when an object vibrates parallel to its axis
cycle one complete vibration or oscillation
frequency (f) the number of cycles per second
hertz (Hz) the unit of measure of frequency
period (T) the time required for one cycle
amplitude distance from the equilibrium position to maximum displacement
equilibrium the rest position
crest high section of a wave
trough low section of a wave
periodic waves originate from periodic vibrations where the motions are continuous and are repeated in the same time intervals
pulse wave that consists of a single disturbance
wavelength (λ) distance between successive wave particles that are in phase
transverse wave particles in the medium move at right angles to the direction in which the wave travels
longitudinal wave particles vibrate parallel to the direction of motion of the wave
compression region in a longitudinal wave where the particles are closer together than normal
rarefaction region in a longitudinal wave where the particles are farther apart than normal
universal wave equation v = f λ
fixed-end reflection reflection from a rigid obstacle when a pulse is inverted
free-end reflection reflection where the new medium is free to move and there is no inversion
partial reflection some of the energy is transmitted into the new medium and some is reflected back into the original medium
wavefront the leading edge of a wave
wave interference occurs when two or more waves act simultaneously on the same particles of a medium
destructive interference occurs when waves diminish one another and the amplitude of the medium is less than it would have been for either of the interfering waves acting alone
constructive interference occurs when waves build each other up, resulting in the medium having a larger amplitude
supercrest occurs when a crest meets a crest
supertrough occurs when a trough meets a trough
principle of superposition at any point the resulting amplitude of two interfering waves is the algebraic sum of the displacements of the individuals waves
resonance the transfer of energy from one object to another having the same natural frequency
standing wave created when waves travelling in opposite directions have the same amplitude and wavelength
node or nodal point a point on a wave that remains at rest
antinode point midway between the nodes where maximum constructive interference occurs
Created by: JP Brichta